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葛畅.纳米氧化锌和纳米二氧化钛对尾草履虫急性毒性效应的比较研究[J].中国农学通报,2019,35(33):131-136..Acute Toxicity of Nano-TiO2 and Nano-ZnO on Paramecium caudatum: A Comparative Study[J].Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin,2019,35(33):131-136
纳米氧化锌和纳米二氧化钛对尾草履虫急性毒性效应的比较研究
Acute Toxicity of Nano-TiO2 and Nano-ZnO on Paramecium caudatum: A Comparative Study
投稿时间:2019-01-07  修订日期:2019-10-25
DOI:10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb19010035
中文关键词: 尾草履虫  急性毒性  抗氧化酶  纳米氧化锌  纳米二氧化钛
英文关键词: Paramecium caudatum  acute toxicity  antioxidase  nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2)  nano-zinc oxide (ZnO)
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基金项目:黑龙江省级领军人才梯队后备带头人项目“利用原生动物评价POPs生态毒性的研究”(No.ES201801)。
作者单位E-mail
葛畅 哈尔滨师范大学生命科学与技术学院原生动物实验室 gechang0310@163.com 
中文摘要:
      [目的][方法] 本研究以原生动物尾草履虫(Paramecium caudatum)为实验对象, 对目前广泛应用的两种纳米材料,纳米二氧化钛(TiO2)和纳米氧化锌(ZnO)的24小时急性毒性进行了比较研究,分析了草履虫在两种纳米材料胁迫下抗氧化酶活性的改变,并结合两种纳米材料的超微形态,探讨了纳米材料毒性效应的机制,为两种纳米材料的环境毒性监测与评价提供依据。[结果]结果显示:对尾草履虫的24小时半数效应浓度(24h-EC50)分别为51.580mg·L-1(TiO2)、0.444mg·L-1(ZnO);最低有影响浓度(24h-LOEC)分别为1.712mg·L-1(TiO2)、0.352mg·L-1(ZnO);以EC50浓度24小时胁迫尾草履虫,获得抗氧化酶活性改变为:超氧化物歧化酶(SOD),过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性与对照组相比有不同程度的改变,经成对检验分析,两种纳米材料对尾草履虫的POD酶表现出较为明显的抑制作用。[结论]上述结果表明:纳米氧化锌对草履虫的24小时急性毒性大于纳米二氧化钛,这与纳米氧化锌对草履虫抗氧化酶的抑制作用更强,以及纳米氧化锌(30nm)的超微形态相较于纳米二氧化钛(25nm)更加纤细和尖锐有关;本研究获得的24小时急性毒性指标可用于监测和评价两种纳米材料的环境毒性,并为纳米材料的环境容量和生态安全阈值确定提供参考。
英文摘要:
      The objectives are to explore the toxic effect and mechanism of nanomaterials, and provide a basis for environmental toxicity monitoring and evaluation of nano titanium dioxide (TiO2) and nano zinc oxide (ZnO). Protozoa Paramecium caudatum was took as an experimental object, and the acute toxicity experiment method was used to test the 24 h half effect concentration (EC50) and the 24 h lowest effect concentration (LOEC) of TiO2 and ZnO. Under EC50 concentration stress of Paramecium caudatum for 24 h, the activity changes of the three kinds of antioxidant enzymes were compared, the morphology of the two kinds of nanomaterials was observed by SEM. The biotoxicity mechanisms of the two nanomaterials were analyzed. The results showed that the 24 h-EC50 was 51.580 mg/L(TiO2) and 0.444 mg/L (ZnO), respectively, and the lowest effect concentration (24 h-LOEC) was 1.712 mg/L(TiO2) and 0.352 mg/L(ZnO), respectively. The changes of antioxidant enzyme activities were as follows: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities changed to different degrees compared with the control group. The difference significance analysis indicated that the two kinds of nanomaterials showed a more obvious inhibition on POD enzymes of Paramecium. These results suggest that the 24 h-acute toxicity of nano-ZnO on Paramecium is greater than that of nano-TiO2, and the toxicity of nanomaterials to Paramecium caudatum is related to its inhibitory effect on antioxidant enzymes.
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