In order to explore the best planting density and harvest time of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi in central region of Gansu Province, in this study, the seedlings of S. baicalensis were used as experimental materials, the two-year-old and three-year-old medicinal materials of S. baicalensis were studied with planting densities of 450000 plants/hm2, 600000 plants/hm2, 750000 plants/hm2, 900000 plants/hm2, 1050000 plants/hm2 and 1200000 plants/hm2. The relative indexes of growth and yield were measured, and the planting benefit of S. baicalensis was estimated. The results showed that the seed yield of two-year-old and three-year-old of S. baicalensis was 50.46 kg/hm2 and 62.77 kg/hm2, respectively, when the planting density was 450000 plants/hm2. The fresh medicine yield of two-year-old and three-year-old was 11167.23 kg/hm2 and 16725.84 kg/hm2, respectively, when the plant density was 1050000 plants/hm2. When the planting density was 750000 plants/hm2, the average single root was the longest and thickest, the yield of fresh medicine and seed were relatively high, and the net profit was the highest, reaching 41009.39 yuan/hm2 and 85083.64 yuan/hm2, respectively. Except the drying rate, the yield indexes of three-year-old S. baicalensis were significantly higher than those of two-year-old S. baicalensis, and the net benefit was increased by 35237.89yuan/hm2 - 44074.25 yuan/hm2. In conclusion, the optimal planting density of S. baicalensis in central Gansu is 750000 plants/hm2, and the best harvest time is three years after planting.