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    Apricot Initial Flowering Period and Meteorological Factors of Kashi, Xinjiang: Correlation and Predication
    Kerimu Abasi, Nu`erpatiman Maimaitireyimu, Meng Fanxue, Patiman Abuduaini, Zhang Qin
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2021, 37 (1): 121-131.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb20200200099
    Abstract + (19033)    HTML (4712)    PDF (1314KB) (25373)      

    Based on the observation of the apricot tree phenology and the daily average temperature, minimum temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours of the corresponding period in Kashi City, and Yecheng, Shache, Bachu and Maigaiti County of Kashi Prefecture of Xinjiang, the relationship between the beginning of apricot flowering and meteorological factors was analyzed using correlation analysis and regression analysis. The results show that among the various meteorological factors, the lowest temperature has the greatest impact on flowering, followed by the average temperature and sunlight, and the precipitation and other meteorological factors have less influence. The temperature in the study area is positively correlated to the flowering period of the apricot tree. From 1984 to 2019, the minimum temperature and average temperature increase in Kashi from late February to late March was 0.2-1.7℃/10 years. The apricot flower bud expansion period, flower bud opening period, the beginning of flowering was ahead of time by 5.3 to 8.7, 3.1 to 5.6, and 2.2 to 3.6 d/10 a, respectively. In apricot flowering period forecasting service, the daily average temperature of north, south and east of Kashi passed through ≥0℃ from day 1 to 34, day 39 to 41, day 37 to 39, or the accumulated temperature passed ≥0℃ before flowering reaching 250, 270-280, and 250-270℃, respectively, or the sliding average temperature of 5 days before the beginning of flowering passed≥12℃ could be used as the basis for predicting the beginning of apricot tree flowering.

    Variation Characteristics and Impact of Climate Factors During Winter Wheat Growth in Kashgar, Xinjiang
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2016, 32 (27): 34-41.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb16010061
    Abstract + (18213)       PDF (1022KB) (24165)      
    The study aims to provide references for crop production in winter wheat area of Kashgar. The data of temperature, precipitation, sunshine duration from 1981 to 2014 during the growth period of winter wheat in Kashgar was used to study the variation characteristics of climate factors and their effects on winter wheat growth and development by the climate statistical method. The results indicated that the annual average temperature change during winter wheat growth in Kashgar showed an increasing trend. The precipitation showed a decreasing trend in the first two months after winter (March and April), and an obviously increasing trend in the rest time. Meanwhile, the effective accumulative temperature and the sunshine duration showed an increasing trend. Each development stage of winter wheat was ahead of schedule in different degrees during recent 34 years, especially the early stage and the jointing stage, but the overwintering stage showed a trend of delay. The temperature, effective accumulative temperature and the sunshine duration were negatively correlated with each development stage of the winter wheat. In short, the main reason for the advance of winter wheat growth period was the increase of temperature, effective accumulative temperature and sunshine duration. The impact of climate warming on winter wheat growth was significant in Kashgar.
    Jujube in Kashgar: Planting Meteorological Condition Analysis and Climate Quality Certification
    克日木.阿巴司
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2018, 34 (31): 119-124.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb17070145
    Abstract + (17320)            
    Based on sunshine duration, relative humidity, wind speed data from the national reference stations of Kashgar and the air temperature, precipitation from automatic meteorological station in Baishikeremu, we analyzed the effects of meteorological conditions and meteorological factors in Kashgar in 2015 on jujube planting and discussed the corresponding measures, studied the climatic suitability zoning indices and climatic conditions for jujube planting in Kashgar, in order to evaluate the climatic quality levels of jujube, determine the main climatic factors affecting jujube quality, and provide a basis for jujube planting techniques and production management. The results showed that: among the meteorological factors in Kashgar in 2015, sunshine was the most conducive to the growth and development of jujube and fruit coloring; there were influences of high temperature and precipitation on the growth and development period of jujube in 2015, and corresponding agricultural measures should be adopted to ensure jujube quality and yield. According to the grade of climatic suitability zoning index of jujube, the climatic conditions of jujube growth of the year and the production management of jujube enterprises, the climate quality grade of jujube in the certified region is excellent.
    Primary Application on the Non-rectangular Hyperbola Model for Photosynthetic Light-Response Curve
    Liu Yufeng, Xiao Langtao, Tong Jianhua, Li Xiao-bo
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2005, 21 (8): 76-76.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.050876
    Abstract + (16064)            
    Compared between two analysis methods of the photosynthetic light-response curve data,the non-rectangular hyperbola model was found to be more objective to calculate the photosynthetic parameters and simulate the photosynthetic light-response curve when the data were processed by the nonlinear statistical regression function of SPSS software and combined with linear regression in the low light period. Binomial regression curve could simulate photosynthetic light-response curve data,but it could not calculate apparent quantum yield(φ) and explain that net photosynthetic rates (Pn) predicted declines quickly when photosynthetic photo flux density(PPFD)excesses the light-saturation point.
    Characteristic and Countermeasures for Control and Prevention of Multiple Area-pollution in Agriculture
    Cui Jian, Ma Youhuan, Zhao Yanping, Dong Jianjun, Shi Rungui, Huang Wenxing
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2006, 22 (1): 335-335.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.0601335
    Abstract + (12048)       PDF (279862KB) (3745)      
    Traditionally, the point source pollution was considered as the main pollution source of surface water, however, the multiple area-pollution has become more and more devastating due to the development of agriculture production and for the point pollution has been fathered well in recent decades. What’s more, the multiple area-pollution has been identified as a major environmental problem.In this paper, the character, the approach, the pollution proportion and the general situation of the agricultural multiple area-pollution were studied, and with the case in Dianchi and Taihu, the successful ways and means of survey, inspectability and control and prevention were introduced. Meanwhile, the countermeasures for control and prevention of multiple area-pollution in agriculture were suggested in Chaohu.
    Research on the Coupling Network of Forest Landscape Patches Based on Shrubs Diversity
    null
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2012, 28 (16): 82-88.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.2012-0161
    Abstract + (10187)       PDF (1527953KB) (1951)      

    In order to research the forest landscape pattern and its influence on the diversity of shrubs in the west of Dongting Lake, based on the forest distribution, the author divided the landscape into 12 types and constituted landscape plaques by amalgamating adjacent sub-compartment. What’s more, combined with Shannon-wiener index, the author deduced the edge effects of shrubs as the edge weights to establish the model and coupling network. The results showed that the coupling network had both scale-free and small-world characteristics, for it had a power-law distribution of node degrees. The node degree and betweenness had a positive correlating high order curve, which indicated that the higher node degree, the more importance it was in the net’s connection. What’s more, the older the trees, the higher density and clustering coefficients, so that the stronger stability the network was. It could be learned from Changde forest station that the node strength had a positive value in a total, although some of them had either positive or negative value and this type of landscape pattern distribution would promote the diversity of shrubs.

    Design and Experiment of Hole-digging Mechanism in Fertilizer Deep-applicator for Orchards
    Wang Quan,Sun Songlin and Qiu Jin
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2016, 32 (20): 147-154.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb16040087
    Abstract + (10057)       PDF (2568KB) (567)      
    Fertilizer machinery cannot easily pass through a close planting orchard, and the fertilizer utilization rate is low when using surface fertilizing. To solve this problem, quantitatively deep-fertilization method through placing granular fertilizer into dug holes was proposed. To put the method into practice, a small size fertilizer deep-applicator for orchards was designed, and its hole-digging performance was tested as well. The results showed that when the holes’ depth were 300, 350 and 400 mm respectively, the average diameter of the top of the holes were 207.7, 207.1 and 209.9 mm, the average diameter of the bottom of the holes were 206.3, 204.3 and 206.1 mm, and the average depth of the holes were 296.7, 345.9 and 395.4 mm, respectively. The errors of the holes’ diameter and depth were within 5 mm. And the digging efficiency was 34.5, 39.6 and 44.1 s, respectively, which could meet the requirements of hole-digging. The testing data provide a technical reference for the industrialization of fertilizer deep-applicator for orchards.
    Present Status and Prospect of Breeding Resistant Cultivers of Brown Planthopper in Rice
    null
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2011, 27 (24): 229-237.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.2011-1593
    Abstract + (9526)       PDF (1433372KB) (2208)      

    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens St?l, BPH) is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice, and the utilization of resistant cultivar has been recognized as one of effective measures for BPH management. In this paper, biotypes and resistant genes of rice brown planthopper (BPH) were reviewed. Breeding status of resistance to BPH of state are introduced in detail, and suggestions were made on research about resistant breeding in the future.

    Coupling Coordinative Degree of Natural Resources-Economy-Ecological Environment System in Urumqi City
    Mailiya Abulizi and Maituoheti Anayiti
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2015, 31 (32): 99-105.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb15070019
    Abstract + (8776)       PDF (1542KB) (720)      
    To study the coupling coordination type of natural resources, economy and ecological environment subsystems and the changing trend of their coupling coordination degree in the future in Urumqi City, with the help of coupling function in physics, a coupling coordination degree index system about natural resources-economy-ecological environment system was built. Quantitative analysis of coupling relationship among the three subsystems was conducted using the coupled coordination degree mathematical model and related calculation method based on the relative statistic data of Urumqi City from 2001 to 2013. Then GM (1, 1) prediction model was used to predict coordinated development trend of the next three years. The results showed that the overall degree of coupling coordination presented an upward trend in Urumqi City from 2001 to 2013, and its value was 0.279-0.502, increased from 0.279 in 2001 to 0.477 in 2013, but its value in 2013 decreased by 0.025 compared with that of 2012, transforming from barely coordination to the verge of disorder. Prediction results showed that in the next three years, coupling coordination degree of natural resources-economy-ecological environment system would be improved obviously, and the coupling coordination degree was 0.476, 0.495 and 0.516, respectively, and the coordination type would transform from disorder into barely coordination gradually.
    The Influence of Different Soil Moisture Content on Growth and Physiological and Biochemical Characteristic of Feijo. sellowiana Berg Seedlings
    null
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2012, 28 (16): 197-201.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.2011-3852
    Abstract + (8666)       PDF (706509KB) (1901)      

    In order to select the best soil water content and study the tolerance of materials, 1-year Feijoa seedlings were treated with different soil moisture content (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%) and normal management was taken as contrast. The author studied the characteristics of morphology and physiological and biochemical (POD and SOD), the option content of soil moisture on seedling growth was screening. The results showed that: all seedlings were grown in different soil water content. When the water content attained more than 80% ,seedlings appeared flooding stress and grown more fast, SOD and POD activities increased gradually with the stress time extending; When Lower than 20%, seedlings appeared drought stress, and their growth were retarded, meanwhile SOD and POD activities showed the trend of declining first and then increasing. The conclusion indicated that 40%-50% soil water content was the best for seedlings grown in this range. And the texting materials had the tolerance for different water content in a long time (within 50 days).

    The screening and identification of antagonistic bacteria against Penicillium expansum and the inhibitive effects of fermentation broth
    null
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2010, 26 (5): 8-13.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.2009-2249
    Abstract + (8397)       PDF (4247140KB) (8647)      

    Dozens of strains of bacteria were isolated from the surface of fruits and the soil, they were selected through the plate confrontation method and six strains which have good antagonistic effect are obtained, among them two strains named T3 and T8 which the fermentation broth showed a significant antagonistic effect to Penicillium expansum are found. The antifungal activity of fermentation broth of T3 and T8 are studied. The stability experiment show that after treatment with 100 ℃ and two proteases, the fermentation broth of T3 performs good antagonistic effect, while antagonistic effect of the fermentation broth of T8 decreases a lot. The antifungal activity of T3 and T8 reach almost highest level after 2 days growth. It is also found that BPA was the optical medium to T3 and PDA was the optical medium to T8. The fermentation broth of two strains can cause hyphae deformity of Penicillium expansum. According to their morphological, physiological, biochemical characters, and the analysis of the sequence of 16SrDNA,T3 and T8 were preliminary identified as Bacillus subtilis, two strains of the similarity between the gene sequence is 93.45%.

    The ABCDE Model of Floral Organ Development
    Cong Nan, Cheng Zhijun, Wan Jianmin,
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2007, 23 (7): 124-124.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.0707124
    Abstract + (8264)       PDF (180045KB) (2040)      
    The classical ABC model illustrated the molecular mechanism of floral development, and explained the floral organ mutants of homeotic gene. Then, the ABC model was expanded to ABCDE model based on the functions of these genes and proteins for floral organ. Recently, the quartet model was proposed in interaction of proteins. These provided an important theory for the network of floral development.
    Effects of Genotype and Ecological factors on Content of Aroma Components of Tobacco
    Cheng Changxin, Lu Xiuping, Xu Zicheng, Huang Pingjun, Zhang Ting
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2005, 21 (11): 137-137.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.0511137
    Abstract + (8021)            
    Aromatic matter was the important factor of tobacco quality. Quality, volume and flavor of aroma were determined by ingredient, content, proportion and interaction of aromatic components. The phenotype of aromatic matter was controlled by both genetic and
    Development of GC-MS Method for Detecting Clenbuterol Residues and Confirmation of Self-made Strip Performance
    Deng Ruiguang, Zhang Haitang, Wang Ziliang, Zhong Hua, Zhang Gaiping
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2008, 24 (11): 32-37.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.2008-0615
    Abstract + (7049)       PDF (692046KB) (1044)      
    GC-MS method of detection for Clenbuterol Hydrochloride (CL) residues in swine urine was established and compared with the method of self-made strip (CL-Strip). The results showed that the detection limits of GC-MS and CL-Strip were 0.5ng/ml and 1.0ng/ml respectively. The detection results of CL added in samples were consistent completely. The detection results of 100 negative swine urine samples and 18 positive swine urine samples by CL-Strip method were agreed with GC/MS method analysis results. It can be concluded that the sensitivity, accuracy and stability of CL-Strip method were about at the same degree as GC-MS method, and CL-Strip method was recommended to be extended for its advantages in convenience, direct-viewing, rapidity, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy.
    Determined Methods of Chlorophyll from Maize
    Li Dexiao, Guo Yuexia, Yun Haiyan, Zhang Min, Gong Xiaoyan, Mu Fang
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2005, 21 (6): 153-153.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.0506153
    Abstract + (6181)       PDF (1197488KB) (5220)      
    The absorption spectrums and extraction efficiencies of chlorophyll from maize seedling after frozen treatment were compared on six determined methods using different organic solvents. The results showed that the absorption spectrums of five solutions were identical with that of acetone solution, so Arnon’s formula of chlorophyll was suitable for other methods. In house temperature, soaking methods were better than Arnon method. The extraction efficiencies of chlorophyll using mixture solution better than using acetone or ethanol alone, methods of acetone mixed ethanol were preferable for fast extraction and stability. Soaking methods in 50℃ after frozen treatment could accelerate extraction of chlorophyll, but also speed up degradation of chlorophyll, so light screening was necessary.
    Analysis of SUSIRI Gene from Rice by Bioinformatics and Subcellular Localization
    Lian Xiaohua and Chen Jian
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2015, 31 (6): 128-135.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb14110097
    Abstract + (6000)       PDF (1114KB) (10683)      
    Transcription factors are a kind of proteins that play an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development, as well as in plant response to environmental variation. They usually contain a DNA-binding domain, a transcription regulation domain, an oligomerization site and a nuclear localization signal inside their DNA sequence. WRKY proteins had been identified as one of the important transcription factors in plants. There have been 103 WRKY genes which were predicted in rice genome by data mining and the annotation of the biological function of these genes had the important value for the functional genomics of rice. SUSIRI gene was one of the WRKY transcription factor genes cloned from the Oryza sativa sub. Japonica var. Nipponbare and its ORF was 1755 bp long, encoding a polypeptide of 584 amino acids with two typical WRKY domains. In this study, based on nucleotide sequence of the SUSIRI gene, its biological function in gene regulation in rice had been further elucidated. Firstly, the structure and functions of the predicted protein were analyzed by bioinformatics tools while the Motif sequence of SUSIRI gene was analyzed by using EBI interpro database, the conserved domains of the protein was analyzed by NCBI CDD database; the hydrophilicity (hydrophobicity) of amino acid residues and the transmembrane domains of SUSIRI protein were analyzed by DNAMAN and CBS TMHMM. By using CBS Protcomp version 9.0 and Protfun software, the subcellular localization and function of protein were predicted. Secondly, the fluorescence expression vector of pNSUGFP driven by actin promoter was constructed by fusing the SUSIRI gene and GFP gene and was used to transform into epidermis cell of onion by Gene gun for detecting gene subcellular location. The prediction from bioinformatics showed that the SUSIRI gene had the greatest probability in function of transcription, transcription regulation or signal transduction in the rice cell with the value in prediction of 0.973, 1.598 and 0.602. Similarly, it had the greatest probability in participation of translation, central intermediary metabolism, fatty acid metabolism with the predicted value of 4.800, 1.490 and 1.265. Because of high content of hydrophilic amino acid residues among peptide sequences, the SUSIRI protein had hardly inserted into the membrane in the cell when it was likely to be localized within the cell nucleus since the strong nucleus location signal was detected from the sequence of amino acids. By using the fluorescence microscopy to observe the onion epidermic cells, the GFP protein was shown to express along the cell wall in the control, but the fused protein of SUSIRI-GFP expressed strongly in the cell nucleus. The result indicated that the SUSIRI gene was likely to be the transcription factor regulating the intermediary metabolism in rice and playing the role during the gene transcription. SUSIRI protein could be localized in nucleolus which is an obvious feature of transcription factor of SUSIRI gene determined by the experiment.
    Progress of Study on Salicylic Acid’s Physiological Role in Plant
    null
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2010, 26 (15): 207-214.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.2010-0170
    Abstract + (5714)       PDF (634899KB) (6105)      

    Salicylic acid is one of the ubiquitously endogenous signal molecules in plant, which has been recognized as a kind of hormones, and has great physiological function such as disease resistance, low temperature resistance, drought resistance, salt resistance, ultraviolet radiation resistance, fruit maturity, gardening product preservation and so on. This article summarized the recent research progress of salicylic acid (SA)’s physiological effects on plants.

    Principle and Methodology of QTL Analysis in Crop
    Xi Zhangying
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2005, 21 (1): 88-88.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.050188
    Abstract + (5558)       PDF (1242830KB) (4410)      
    Most agronomic traits are quantitative traits. Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is based on Morgan linked inheritance principle. QTL mapping populations include the primary mapping population, the secondary mapping population and the advanced mapping population. Methods of QTL analysis include the single marker mapping, the interval mapping, the composite interval mapping and the mixed linear model. The precise of QTL mapping are affected by the population size, analysis method, QTL distribution and so on. Some disadvantages are found in traditional mapping populations and analysis methods, so new mapping populations and new methods are need in future QTL analysis.
    Effects of Three Detoxification Methods in Reducing Hydrogen Cyanide Content of Flaxseed
    Tang Huacheng, Zhao Lei
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2007, 23 (7): 139-139.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.0707139
    Abstract + (5532)       PDF (132595KB) (787)      
    Flaxseed is rich in α-linolenic acid, lignans and other nutritional components, but the presence of cyanogenic glucosides restricts its application in feedstuff and foodstuff. A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of reducing the hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content of flaxseed by three processing methods. Flaxseed was processed by solvent extracting, microwave roasting and water boiling. The effectiveness in reducing HCN in flaxseed by these processes was monitored through HCN measurements by titration method. The results indicted the following.The HCN content was 157.68mg/kg in raw flaxseed. Microwave roasting of flaxseed reduced the HCN content by 95.57%; solvent extracting once reduced HCN content by 52%, twice by 80%, and thrice by 89%, and the water boiling reduced by 88.12%。Among these the microwave roasting method is the most effective method in removal of HCN; the solvent extracting method is easier to realize an industrialized production, the autoclaving and water boiling methods can be used only under special circumstance.
    Studies on the Inversion of Soil Organic Matter Content Based on Hyper-spectrum
    null
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2013, 29 (23): 146-152.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.2012-3343
    Abstract + (5336)       PDF (921750KB) (10701)      
    The use of hyperspectral can conduct quantitative inversion on soil organic matter content, which is an important indicator of soil fertility, and then provide a reference for the rapid determination of surface soil organic matter content of accurate agricultural. The author conducted the spectral measurements on treated soil samples under laboratory conditions by using the spectroradiometer-U.S.ASD FieldSpec FR, established the multiple regression relationship model between the soil spectral variables and soil organic matter content through the correlation analysis between the different variations of the spectral reflectance of the soil samples and the organic matter content of the soil. The results showed that: the soil organic matter content inversed regression model, which was established by employing the first-order differential spectral reflectance at the wavelength of 492 nm, 663 nm, 1221 nm, 1317 nm, 1835 nm and 2130 nm, possessed the best prediction accuracy, the coefficient of determination R2 was 0.909. The established hyperspectral inversion model of the soil organic matter content could predict the soil organic matter content with the most accurate, and it also provide a new approach for the rapid determination of soil organic matter content of precision agriculture.