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2022 Vol.38 No.34 Published:05 December 2022
 Effects of Different Sowing Amounts on Yield and Dry Matter Production and Transport of ‘Xinmai 296’ YIN Xundong, LV Guangde, MOU Qiuhuan, MI Yong, YIN Fuwei, LI Ning, QIAN Zhaoguo, WU Ke 2022, 38 (34):  1-7.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2021-1220 Abstract + ( 46 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF ( 1254KB )   ( 18 ) In order to study the effect of sowing amount on dry matter production and transport capacity and grain yield of ‘Xinmai 296’, five sowing amount levels were designed as 75, 150, 225, 300 and 375 kg/hm2, to determine the dry matter weight of various organs at different growth stages and grain yield under the 5 sowing amounts, and calculate the dry matter transport amount and transport rate through the formula. The results showed that under 150 kg/hm2 sowing amount, the dry matter accumulation at jointing to flowering and flowering to maturity stages, dry matter production after flowering, the contribution rate of dry matter production after flowering to grain, and dry matter weight of grain at maturity stage were the highest, and the difference from those under other sowing amounts was significant. The dry matter weight of each organ after flowering reached the highest under the sowing amount of 150 kg/hm2, and the dry matter weight of ear at harvest and the dry matter weight of the whole plant at each stage after flowering also reached the highest under the sowing amount of 150 kg/hm2, and the difference from those under other sowing amounts was significant. The yield of ‘Xinmai 296’ reached the highest under the sowing amount of 150 kg/hm2, and the difference from that under other sowing amounts reached a significant level. Under different sowing amounts, the variation trend of yield was 150 kg/hm2> 75 kg/hm2> 225 kg/hm2> 300 kg/hm2> 375 kg/hm2. This study can provide reference for studying the sowing amount of different wheat varieties.
 Effects of Long-term Straw Returning on Organic Carbon and Carbon Pool Management Index in Dryland Maize Soil HU Xuechun, XIE Wenyan, MA Xiaonan, ZHOU Huaiping, YANG Zhenxing, LIU Zhiping 2022, 38 (34):  8-13.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2021-1181 Abstract + ( 38 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF ( 1449KB )   ( 13 ) Taking the cinnamon soil in the maize planting area of Shouyang County in Jinzhong City of Shanxi Province as the research object, the effects of the ways of long-term straw returning on soil organic carbon, active organic carbon and its components, and carbon pool management index were discussed, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for fertilize dryland cinnamon soil and improve soil quality. Here, based on a long-term (30 years, from 1992 to 2021) straw returning to field experiment, according to equal carbon content straw returning, 4 treatments were set up: straw mulching (SM), straw crushing (SC), cattle manure (CM), and no straw returning (CK). The results are as follows. (1) The soil total organic carbon content of CM significantly increased by 29.23% and 35.72%, respectively, compared with that of SM and SC. (2) Compared with that of CK, the soil active organic carbon content of CM significantly increased by 77.72%, and it was significantly different from that of SM and SC. The soil microbial biomass carbon content of SM, SC and CM significantly increased by 26.39%, 43.51% and 70.83%, respectively, compared with that of CK. The dissolved organic carbon content of SM, SC and CM significantly increased by 4.32%, 31.47% and 60.00%, respectively, compared with that of CK. (3) There was no significant difference in the efficiency of active organic carbon among SM, SC, CM and CK. The efficiency of microbial biomass carbon and dissolved organic carbon of SC were significantly higher than that of CK by 28.04% and 17.10%, respectively. Compared with CK, SM significantly reduced the efficiency of dissolved organic carbon in soil by 11.48%, while CM had no significant improvement effect on soil carbon efficiency. (4) Compared with that of SM and SC, the soil carbon pool management index of CM increased significantly by 138.89% and 72.32%. The results show that cattle manure (CM) can significantly improve the fertility of the northern dryland cinnamon soil, increase the soil carbon pool management index, and improve the soil quality. It is the optimal way of straw returning.
 Analysis and Comprehensive Evaluation of Main Traits of Soybean in Inner Mongolia from 2002 to 2021 YU Zhonghao, ZHOU Wei, LI Zhigang, LI Ziwen, JIA Juanxia, ZHOU Yaxing 2022, 38 (34):  14-21.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-0022 Abstract + ( 36 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF ( 1418KB )   ( 4 ) The paper aims to comprehensively analyze the agronomic and quality traits of soybean varieties in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and to provide theoretical reference for the selection of parents and superior varieties for future breeding of soybean varieties in Inner Mongolia. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis, TOPSIS analysis and cluster analysis were used to comprehensively analyze 6 traits of 109 soybean varieties in Inner Mongolia. The genetic diversity index of the 6 traits ranged from 2.5964 to 2.8692, the coefficient of variation ranged from 6.79% to 20.1%, in which the variation coefficient of protein content was the lowest and the heredity was the most stable. Three principal components were selected by principal component analysis, the cumulative genetic contribution rate was 79.98%, and the evaluation equation S=0.48S1+0.31S2+0.21S3 was established. Using principal component analysis and TOPSIS analysis, 7 varieties with high comprehensive ranking were selected, which could be used as good parents in future new variety breeding. The 109 soybean varieties were divided into five groups by cluster analysis. The Ⅰ group had the best comprehensive character and could be regarded as the excellent soybean varieties in Inner Mongolia, while the Ⅴ group had only one variety ‘Dengke 2’ with a very short growth period, which could be promoted in areas with short frost-free period or participate in the breeding of extremely early maturing varieties. Soybean varieties in Inner Mongolia are diverse and the soybean breeding level is also improved year by year, but there is a lack of high-quality soybean varieties, so it is necessary to pay more attention to soybean breeding with high oil and high protein contents. The selected parents are mostly from Heilongjiang Province and Jilin Province, and the local soybean varieties have not been well developed and utilized, this is also a key factor restricting the further improvement of soybean breeding in Inner Mongolia.
 Effects of Phosphorus Fertilizer Rate on Photosynthetic Characteristics and Dry Matter Accumulation of Rapeseed in Coastal Saline Soil ZHANG Baohan, LIU Jingyi, YOU Jingjing, ZUO Qingsong 2022, 38 (34):  22-26.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2021-1200 Abstract + ( 22 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF ( 1362KB )   ( 1 ) The conventional Brassica napus cultivar ‘Ningyou 20’ was planted to study the effects of phosphorus fertilizer on photosynthetic characteristics and dry matter accumulation of rapeseed in saline soil. Leaf area indexes, leaf net photosynthetic rate and dry matter weight at different growth stages were tested. The results showed that, in the range of 0-120 kg/hm2 phosphate fertilizer application, with the increase of phosphorus fertilizer rate, the leaf area index and dry matter weight at seedling stage and early flowering stage increased, and the yield and dry matter weight at maturing stage also increased. Oil content was low in the treatments of zero and 30 kg/hm2 phosphorus fertilizer rate. When the phosphorus fertilizer rate reached 60 kg/hm2, there was no significant change in oil content with the further increase of the rate. The variation trend of leaf net photosynthetic rate with the change of the phosphorus fertilizer rate at seedling stage was consistent with that of the dry matter weight. With the phosphorus fertilizer rate reaching 60 kg/hm2, there was no significant increase in leaf net photosynthetic rate with the further increase of phosphorus fertilizer rate at early flowering stage.
 Habitat Investigation and Identification of Three Wild Edible Fungi in Dongting Lake Area WU Fang, FENG Liguo, JIANG Xingjian, SHI Yuelong, WANG Chunhui, HUANG Xiaohui, YU Chuquan 2022, 38 (34):  27-32.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-0165 Abstract + ( 25 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF ( 2455KB )   ( 2 ) To explore and understand the wild edible fungi resources in Dongting Lake area, the habitat of three wild edible fungi collected in the reedy wetland of Datonghu were investigated and identified. The survey results indicate that the three fungi have totally different morphology, and different adaptability and temperature preference for growing conditions and seasons. HEFIW LuI is small with yellow-brown cap, often multi-clustered, and also has wide temperature preference and long growth period. HEFIW LuII is medium-sized with milky white to yellowish cap, and has low temperature preference, mostly occurring in early spring. HEFIW LuIII is medium to large with pale yellow to light brown cap, and has high temperature preference, mostly occurring in late spring and early summer. According to morphological observation and ITS sequencing, the 3 species of fungi are identified as Pholiota conissans, Agrocybe praecox and Stropharia rugosoannulata f. lutea.
 Preliminary Study on the Bag Material Cultivation Techniques of Poria cocos WANG Yinan, WANG Jibin, ZHOU Fei, WANG Wenzhi, ZHANG Jinping, FANG Hong 2022, 38 (34):  33-38.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-0552 Abstract + ( 24 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF ( 1331KB )   ( 0 ) This study takes pine branches and pine needles as raw materials, and studies the effects of different bag material formulas and cultivation methods on the sclerotium formation rate, biological efficiency and content of chemical components of Poria cocos, and compares the effects with those of the traditional log cultivation of P. cocos (control group), in order to provide technical support for the bag material cultivation of P. cocos. Two P. cocos bag material cultivation formulas obtained in the previous experiments were used to make the bag materials and the sclerotium of P. cocos was inoculated by the wood guide method. The biological efficiency and chemical components’ contents of P. cocos in single cellar were used as the comparative indexes to explore the effects of the two bag material formulas and different cultivation methods on the sclerotium formation and quality of P. cocos. The results showed that: the survival rate of P. cocos inoculated with the two formulas was 100%, and the highest biological efficiency of formula 1 was 38.18% higher than that of formula 2. The contents of alcohol soluble substances, total triterpenes and tuckaholic acid of formula 1 were 1.11%, 0.45% and 1569.81 mg/kg higher than those of formula 2, and those figures of formula 2 were 3.41%, 0.59% and 2053.98 mg/kg higher than those of P. cocos cultivated in log, respectively. The types and contents of amino acids (except cystine) in P. cocos of the two bag material cultivation formulas were 1.000-2.500 times those of P. cocos cultivated in log. The average biological efficiency and the highest biological efficiency of P. cocos inoculated in single bag were 6.09% and 10.17% higher than those in double bags.
 Effects of Low Light on Plant Growth and Fruit Development of Watermelon GAO Wenrui, SUN Yanjun, HAN Bing, LI Decui, FEI Cong, WANG Xiansheng, XU Gang 2022, 38 (34):  39-45.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-0207 Abstract + ( 19 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF ( 1418KB )   ( 0 ) The paper aims to clarify the problem that watermelon fruit is difficult to expand normally under low light stress. Watermelon variety ‘Sumi 8’ was used as test material to study the effects of low light on watermelon plant growth and fruit development through field shading simulated low light stress. The results showed that the effect of low light on watermelon plant growth existed from the beginning of shading treatment; 3-15 days after pollination was the rapid expansion period of watermelon fruit, which was also the key period of weak light affecting watermelon fruit expansion. Low light could significantly reduce the plant height, stem diameter, leaf number and leaf size, and could significantly inhibit the accumulation of dry and fresh matter and the photosynthesis. Low light seriously affected the size and number of watermelon pulp cells, restricted the nuclear replication of watermelon fruit, and then affected the normal expansion of watermelon fruit. This study provides a scientific basis for the research and application of light environment management and low light resistance cultivation techniques for watermelon.
 Effect of Abscisic Acid on Cadmium Accumulation of Grape Seedlings HAN Jiaxi, FAN Zhonghan, DONG Yixia, LV Xinrui, LI Hongchun, CHEN Qinghua, LI Honghao, LIN Lijin, HU Rongping 2022, 38 (34):  46-51.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2021-0764 Abstract + ( 24 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF ( 1315KB )   ( 1 ) To reduce the cadmium accumulation in grape and promote the grape growth under the cadmium pollution condition, a pot experiment was used to study the effect of spraying abscisic acid on the growth and cadmium accumulation of grape seedlings under cadmium pollution (5 mg/kg). The results showed that the biomass of each part of the grape seedlings and the photosynthetic pigment content in leaves all decreased first and then increased with the increase of the spraying concentration of abscisic acid (0, 1, 5, 10, and 20 μmol/L). Compared with those of control (0 μmol/L), with the increase of abscisic acid concentration, the POD and CAT activities of grape seedling leaves and the soil pH value increased first and then decreased, while SOD activity increased with the increase of abscisic acid concentration. In addition, spraying abscisic acid could make the cadmium content of each part of grape seedlings significantly lower than that of the control, and decrease with the increase of abscisic acid concentration. When the concentration of spraying abscisic acid was 20 μmol/L, the cadmium content of the roots and above-ground parts of grape seedlings decreased by 36.54% and 74.36% respectively compared with that of control. In summary, spraying abscisic acid could inhibit the cadmium absorption of grape, and the abscisic acid concentration of 20 μmol/L is the best.
 Nutrition and Fertilizer Efficient Utilization Technology of Cut Chrysanthemum: Research Progress YANG Kexin, ZHAO Xin, GE Hong, YANG Shuhua, JIA Ruidong, KOU Yaping 2022, 38 (34):  52-58.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2021-1206 Abstract + ( 10 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF ( 1154KB )   ( 1 ) The paper aims to solve the problems of less available nutrients and poor quality caused by excessive fertilization in facility cultivation of cut chrysanthemum. We summarized the research progress of cut chrysanthemum’s fertilizer uptake and nutritional regulation, and the effects of macronutrients, micronutrients and technology to improve the fertilizer utilization efficiency on the growth and development of cut chrysanthemum. It is concluded that the nutrient requirements of different cut chrysanthemum varieties share similar patterns in the same growth period or organ, but the optimal fertilizer ratio and application amount need to be adjusted according to different cultivation substrates, soil or environments. Fertilization on demand and supporting techniques play an important role in improving soil structure and quality of cut chrysanthemum. It is considered that scientific research and production should be closely combined to make a profound study on the mechanism and technology of efficient absorption and utilization of nutrients, and speed up the establishment of a standard fertilization system suitable for local requirement, so as to promote the specialized, large-scale and intensive development of cut chrysanthemum production.
 Evaluation on the Suitability of Urban Parks and Green Spaces for Leisure and Recreation from the Perspective of Health: Taking Hangzhou Chengbei Sports Park as an Example MENG Wei, ZHANG Jianguo 2022, 38 (34):  59-67.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2021-1009 Abstract + ( 15 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF ( 1735KB )   ( 3 ) Based on the comprehensive analysis of the health promotion effect of urban parks and green spaces and related evaluation models, the evaluation index system and evaluation model construction of the suitability of urban parks and green spaces for leisure and recreation under the health perspective are explored. (1) On the basis of literature analysis and expert consultation, we constructed the evaluation index system for the suitability of urban parks and green spaces for health, leisure and recreation, which included 6 criterion layers, 15 element layers and 40 indexes. (2) The analytic hierarchy process and entropy method were used to determine the weight of each index in the evaluation index system. The importance of each level of evaluation index was obtained, and the health efficacy perception (0.2663) and the public aesthetics (0.2470) ranked first and second in the criterion level. The top evaluation indexes in the element layer were physiological health (0.1332), plant landscape (0.0988), air quality (0.0926) and recreational space (0.0871). (3) With the help of questionnaire survey scores, an empirical evaluation of the suitability of the green space of Hangzhou Chengbei Sports Park for healthy leisure and recreation was carried out. The final overall score of the Chengbei Sports Park was 4.1996, which belonged to the excellent level. However, there were problems with water landscape and basic service facilities. According to the evaluation results, we proposed development strategies from five aspects.
 Research on Health Benefits of Community Gardens at Home and Abroad: A Review YAN Yue, JIN Hexian, WANG Lixian 2022, 38 (34):  68-75.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2021-1210 Abstract + ( 15 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF ( 1456KB )   ( 1 ) The paper aims to reveal the mechanism and influencing factors of community garden health benefits, promote people’s health, and activate the vitality of cities. Based on CNKI and Web of Science (WoS) literature database, research on the health benefits of community gardens at home and abroad from 2000 to 2021 was analyzed. The results showed that: (1) during 2000-2021, the research at home and abroad showed a significant growth trend, most of the foreign research was oriented towards food health development and paid more attention to quantitative and empirical research on human settlements and health; domestic research was mostly practical application oriented, carrying out site construction mainly in planning and design and horticultural activities; (2) the mechanism and influencing factors of community garden health benefits were the key points of the research at home and abroad, research on the mechanism of action focused on relieving mental pressure, enhancing physical efficiency, promoting social interaction and so on, while that on the major influencing factors focused on community garden construction characteristics, maintenance of biological diversity, vegetation types and management; (3) multidisciplinary ecological governance and green development for building low-carbon healthy living environment are hot research fields in the future.
 Specificity Evaluation of Local Tea Germplasm Resources in Yunnan SHANG Weiqiong, DUAN Zhifen, DENG Shaochun, SUN Chengmian, YANG Yijian, LI Jinlong, XIA Rui, LIU Benying 2022, 38 (34):  76-81.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2020-0439 Abstract + ( 22 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF ( 1341KB )   ( 0 ) This study used 50 tea germplasms from different regions in Yunnan planted in National Large-leaf Tea Tree Resource Repository (Menghai) as the test materials, to determine and analyze the contents of tea biochemical components and screen specific resources. The results of the experiment showed that in the 50 tea germplasms from different regions of Yunnan, the content of tea polyphenols ranged from 20.35% to 33.02%, and the average content was 26.72%. The content of amino acids ranged from 1.95% to 4.20% with the average content of 2.99%. The caffeine content ranged from 2.03% to 5.17%, and the average content was 2.93%. The total amount of catechins was from 8.21% to 21.29% with the average content of 11.12%. In general, the 50 tea germplasms have high contents of tea polyphenols and amino acids. 32 tested germplasms belong to high tea polyphenols resource (tea polyphenols content≥25.0%), 26 belong to high amino acids resource (amino acid content≥3.0%), 1 belong to high caffeine resource (caffeine content≥5.0%), and 1 belong to high catechins resource (catechins content≥20.0%). The selected germplasm resources can be used for genetic improvement of tea tree.
 Impact of Microbial Agent Broadcast Application on Microbial Community Structure of Saline-alkali Soil in Shizuishan of Ningxia SHA Yuexia, HUANG Zeyang, WEI Zhaoqing 2022, 38 (34):  82-90.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2021-1189 Abstract + ( 24 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF ( 1824KB )   ( 4 ) Saline-alkali soil is a reserved cultivated land resource with high value. The soil microbial community can be used as one of the biological evaluation indicators to measure the soil quality. Illumina MiSeq technology was used to detect the ITS and 16S rRNA sequence of the samples. The regulating effects of two microbial agents on the micro-ecological environment of saline-alkali soil in Shizuishan of Ningxia were analyzed. The results showed that the broadcast application of microbial agent YF and JF could reduce the pH of saline-alkali soil and improve the nutrient status. In addition, the richness index, diversity index and evenness index of fungal and bacterial communities increased significantly. The relative abundances of Fusarium and Aspergillus in fungal community were reduced by more than 40%. The relative abundances of Arthrobacter, Sphingomonas and Nocardioides in bacterial community were increased above 8.0%. The broadcast application of microbial agents reduced the operational taxonomic units (OTU) number of soil fungal and bacterial communities compared to the empty control. The environmental factors, including soil nitrate nitrogen, organic matter, K, C, N, P and pH, had significant effect on microbial community of saline-alkali soil. Therefore, the broadcast application of the two microbial agents can improve the saline-alkali soil quality as well as the soil micro-ecological environment in Shizuishan of Ningxia.
 Effects of Different Amendments on Saline-alkali Soil Improvement and Cotton Growth in Xinjiang ZHOU Xianlin, QIN Qin, MENG Yongming, WANG Long, HU Chengcheng, ZHU Haiyong, LAI Bo 2022, 38 (34):  91-96.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2021-1180 Abstract + ( 31 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF ( 1423KB )   ( 4 ) Focusing on the characteristics of saline-alkali soil in the arid area of Xinjiang, the most appropriate soil amendment for saline-alkali soil improvement was screened. We carried out field plot experiments, designed four treatments, including control group (CK), Yanjianzhuanjia (Y), urea phosphate (L) and Weilizhuang (W), and analyzed the effects of soil amendments on the salinity, pH, total alkalinity, and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) in 20 cm surface layer of medium saline-alkali soil and cotton seedling growth and yield. The results showed that all amendments reduced soil salt content and pH, promoted cotton seedling growth and improved cotton yield. Compared with CK, Y treatment and L treatment had better effects of restraining salt, and reduced the relative salinity increase rate by 107.73% and 101.67%, respectively; Y treatment significantly decreased soil pH by 0.15 units, and significantly promoted cotton seedling growth and increased cotton yield by 5.84%; Y treatment and W treatment had the best effects on reducing total alkalinity of soil, with an significant decrease by 0.46 and 0.41 units, respectively, but their reducing effects on SAR were not obviously different from CK. In conclusion, according to the effects of all amendments on soil physical and chemical properties and cotton yield, Yanjianzhuanjia is recommended as the most suitable saline-alkali soil amendment for the test area.
 The Mechanism of Soil Nitrogen Mineralization: Research Progress XU Lingqing, LI Jiajia, CHANG Xiao, ZHANG Yunlong, LIU Dali 2022, 38 (34):  97-101.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-0587 Abstract + ( 32 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF ( 1234KB )   ( 5 ) Inorganic nitrogen is an important source of nitrogen for crops to absorb and utilize. The mineralization capacity of soil organic nitrogen determines the soil capacity of providing nitrogen to crops. The mineralization of soil organic nitrogen is mainly driven by soil microorganisms. It is the process of decomposing organic nitrogen into ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen under the action of microorganisms. The change of the mineralization rate of organic nitrogen is mainly attributed to the change of soil microorganisms after the change of environmental factors. The study of soil nitrogen mineralization is of great significance to soil nitrogen cycle and soil nitrogen supply capacity. This paper reviewed the mechanism of microbial action in the process of soil nitrogen mineralization, and discussed the effects of microbial changes on soil nitrogen mineralization rate under different environmental factors, as well as the interaction mechanism of plant-soil-microbes. The study can provide theoretical reference for exploring the soil nitrogen mineralization process and improving soil nitrogen supply capacity.
 Agrometeorological Indexes and Climate Quality Evaluation of Sugar Content of Wallace Melon YU Liangliang, KONG Deyin, GAO Peide, BAO Jiajing, KONG Mingchuan 2022, 38 (34):  102-106.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-0172 Abstract + ( 30 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF ( 1320KB )   ( 4 ) The agrometeorological index system of Wallace melon sugar content is the basis of quantitatively evaluating the quality of Wallace melon, and also the basis of agrometeorological service for the melon production. This paper explained the connotation of agrometeorological index system of Wallace melon, and compared and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the research methods of agrometeorological indexes comprehensively. Then, based on the general rule, the agrometeorological index system of temperature, moisture, humidity and evaporation in the key growth periods was established. The results showed that 20 indexes passed the 0.01 significance level test, and 6 indexes passed the 0.05 significance level test. The biological significance and agrometeorological significance of the selected indexes were obvious, which accorded with the production practice. In order to facilitate the development of agrometeorological service, all the indexes were divided into the most suitable, less suitable and unsuitable groups. The model passed the significance test of 0.01, and the fitting rate reached 94.4%, showing precise fitting effect. Therefore, the model can be used to evaluate the quality of Wallace melon.
 Tolerance of Sugarcane Germplasm to Sugarcane Thrips LUO Zhiming, QIN Wei, YIN Jiong, LI Yinhu, ZHANG Rongyue, LI Jun 2022, 38 (34):  107-112.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2021-1064 Abstract + ( 26 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF ( 1343KB )   ( 4 ) The tolerance of 12 sugarcane germplasms to sugarcane thrips was evaluated by natural population inoculation method. The results showed that there were great differences in the pest levels of different sugarcane germplasms. Among them, ‘Yunzhe 15-507’ had the least damage (pest index was 13.33%), and ‘Yunzhe 14-1010’ had the most serious damage (pest index was 73.33%). The results of correlation analysis showed that the correlation between pest index and leaf rolling rate was the strongest (R=0.9758), and the number of thrips adults was weakly correlated with pest index and leaf rolling rate. The 12 sugarcane germplasms could be divided into four pest tolerance grades from strong to weak, of which the first grade included ‘Yunzhe 135-507’, ‘Yunzhe 15-1679’ and ‘Yunzhe 14-1289’, the second grade included ‘Yunzhe 11-3898’ and ‘Yunzhe 14-1215’, the third grade included ‘Yunzhe 14-1208’, ‘Yunzhe 15-1629’, ‘Yunzhe 13-1821’ and ‘Yunzhe 12-1185’, and the fourth grade included ‘Yuetang 93-159’, ‘Yunzhe 13-1182’ and ‘Yunzhe 14-1010’. The analysis of the physiological and biochemical indexes related to the tolerance of sugarcane germplasms to insect pests showed that the pest index had a significantly negative correlation with polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, a weakly positive correlation with catalase (CAT) activity, and no correlation with phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content.
 Effects of Two Types of Foliar Fertilizers on Cucumber-Thrips HAN Yajing, WANG Xinyu, LI Jiayue, HUANG Qunyi, WANG Hanting, YE Lefu, FU Xue 2022, 38 (34):  113-119.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-0329 Abstract + ( 17 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF ( 1351KB )   ( 5 ) To evaluate the comprehensive effects of biological agents on plants and herbivorous insects, the responses of cucumber plants and thrips to self-made fermented bio-extract, wood vinegar and the mixed solution were measured, including the growth and physiological indexes of cucumber, the activity levels of anti-stress enzymes in cucumber leaves, and the development and population dynamics of thrips. The results showed that: (1) fermented bio-extract significantly shortened the development duration of thrips; the mixed solution significantly delayed the development of thrips and inhibited their population; (2) fermented bio-extract significantly accelerated the increase of the aboveground biomass of cucumber plants, and decreased the content of soluble protein and chlorophyll in cucumber leaves; and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S transferase (GST) in cucumber leaves infected with insects. In conclusion, both fermented bio-extract and wood vinegar have certain effects on cucumber plants and thrips. The mixed solution can effectively inhibit thrips. Multiple use of fermented bio-extract can produce higher comprehensive benefits, not only promote cucumber growth, but also increase plant ‘immunity’.
 Effect of South Schisandra chinensis Ester B-Nisin-KGM Compound Coating Agent on Fresh Meat Preservation ZHANG Junwei, ZHANG Xiaohu, XU Yucong 2022, 38 (34):  120-129.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2021-0641 Abstract + ( 21 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF ( 1959KB )   ( 1 ) Taking Schisandra chinensis, the “medicine and food homology” plant, of Shangluo as the research object, the extraction, purification and antibacterial study of south Schisandra chinensis ester B were conducted. Then, we combined south Schisandra chinensis ester B with Nisin, KGM and lycopene to prepare a compound coating agent, in order to prolong the storage time of cold fresh meat. The ultrasonic-assisted ethanol extraction of south Schisandra chinensis ester B was optimized by response surface method of HPLC. At the ultrasonic temperature of 68℃, solid-liquid ratio of 1:8, ethanol mass fraction of 84% and extraction time of 60 min, the yield of south Schisandra chinensis ester B was 1.426 mg/g. The bacterial inhibition order of south Schisandra chinensis ester B purified by HPD100 macroporous resin was Salmonella paratyphi A< Escherichia coli< Staphylococcus aureus< Bacillus subtilis. Taking pH, TVB-N value and MetMb content as the main freshness indexes of cold fresh meat, the effects of different concentrations of south Schisandra chinensis ester B, Nisin, KGM and lycopene on the preservation of cold fresh meat were investigated. The optimal formula of the compound coating agent optimized by orthogonal method was as follows: 2.5% south Schisandra chinensis ester B+0.1% Nisin+0.4% KGM+0.03% lycopene, the agent can preserve fresh meat at 4℃ for 10 days. The results can provide technical reference for south Schisandra chinensis ester B application in the storage and preservation of cold fresh meat.
 Packing and Edibility Characteristics Evaluation of 80 Grape Cultivars’ Leaves ZHANG Wen, Maynol Garmali, LI Heping, WANG Min, HAN Shou’an, XIE Hui, Mahmood Turup, ZHOU Xuewei, Aiermaike Caik Aaasimu, PAN Mingqi 2022, 38 (34):  130-137.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-0004 Abstract + ( 19 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF ( 1505KB )   ( 0 ) The purpose of this study is to screen suitable grape cultivars with leaves of proper packing characteristics, nutritional quality and palatability, which could meet consumer demand, and to provide reference for the application and development of leaf use grape in Xinjiang. Mature leaves of 80 grape cultivars (69 table grape cultivars and 11 rootstock cultivars) were used as test materials, 12 indicators related to leaf packing characteristics were measured. Cluster analysis was performed to screen the cultivars which could conform to the packing characteristics by 4 key indicators, including upper cleft depth, flexibility and folding damage level, and vein and dorsal villi. The nutritional and palatability quality of the screened cultivars were evaluated by measuring 5 physicochemical indexes including soluble sugar, soluble protein, tannin, total phenol and total flavonoids. 15 grape cultivars with leaf packing characteristics similar to ‘Thompson Seedless’ were screened out through cluster analysis, such as ‘Rizzamat’, ‘Youwuhe’, ‘Cuixiangbao’, ‘101-14’ and ‘5BB’. The tannin content of 16 cultivars was low, which could meet the requirements of palatability. The content of soluble sugar, soluble protein, total phenol and flavonoids in leaves of the 16 cultivars ranged from 52.46-123.45, 57.09-75.99, 2.20-6.81 and 1.05-4.30 mg/g, respectively. In general, 6 table grape cultivars, ‘Youwuhe’, ‘Rizzamat’, ‘Cuixiangbao’, ‘Zaomanao’, ‘Xinya’ and ‘Wuhecuibao’, and 4 rootstock cultivars, ‘5BB’, ‘101-14’, ‘110R’ and ‘SO4’, could be used as alternative leaf use grape cultivars.
 Multiple Weight Prediction Methods Based on Kumquat Image LIU Xian, YANG Hang, LI Jianxiang, YU Jianqian 2022, 38 (34):  138-143.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-0377 Abstract + ( 24 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF ( 2074KB )   ( 1 ) To improve the intelligent degree of kumquat weight detection, this paper studied the weight prediction based on kumquat image and proposed a new intelligent weight prediction method. We collected 600 kumquat images on the self-built image acquisition system test platform and used Python language in combination with OpenCV computer vision library to solve the size of kumquat based on the image. According to the actual weight data, we used least square method, linear method, polynomial method and other methods to fit the data, and constructed the weight prediction model based on kumquat image. The experimental results showed that it was feasible and had certain scientific research value to build a mathematical model based on kumquat image to predict the weight of kumquat. The prediction model equation of the linear method was y=7.27×10-6x+23.032, the prediction model equation of polynomial method was y=1.199×10-15x3-1.082×10-9x2+3.053×10-4x-2.773, and the prediction model equation of the least square method was $y = 2 . 564 × 10 - 8 x ( - 9 . 688 × 10 - 6 x 2 + 2531870 . 247 )$.
 Current Status of Research on Major Plant Epidemic Based on Bibliometrics and Patentometrics WANG Yan, XU Meimei, SHAN Lianhui, GOU Huan, TONG Yujia, AN Xinying 2022, 38 (34):  144-154.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2021-1203 Abstract + ( 12 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF ( 2021KB )   ( 0 ) This study analyzed journal papers and patents in the field of major plant epidemic at home and abroad from 2011 to 2020, explored current situation and cutting-edge trends of plant epidemic research, aiming to provide valuable reference for the research innovation in this field and the construction of plant epidemic prevention and control system in China. The bibliometric method was used to sort out the paper publishing countries, journals and cited frequencies in the field of major plant epidemics at home and abroad from 2011 to 2020 in Web of Science core collection, and the research frontiers and hotspots were obtained by keyword analysis. The regional distribution and technical fields were analyzed by patentometrics. Scientific and technological innovation in major plant fields in the world developed steadily, and the number of published papers and patents continued to rise. China ranked first in the total number of published papers and patents in the world, but the degree of international cooperation and the citation frequency of papers were low. China had a large number of authors with high publication volume, but the degree of international cooperation among authors was low. Research hotspots in this field mainly focused on disease identification and control, and chemical ecology of diseases and pests, such as drug resistance monitoring, pesticide risk assessment, and research on biological functional genes. Although China has strong research and development strength in this field, it still needs to improve exchanging and learning ability in domestic and foreign advantageous fields to enhance its influence, and actively carries out international technical research cooperation, so as to provide strong support for the development of long-term effective control of plant epidemic.
 Advances in Scientific Research on Andrographis paniculata SUN Mingyang, XU Shiqiang, ZHANG Wenting, GU Yan, MEI Yu, LI Jingyu, ZHOU Fang, WANG Jihua 2022, 38 (34):  155-164.  DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2021-1204 Abstract + ( 18 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF ( 2152KB )   ( 1 ) This study aims to understand the research status and disciplinary development of Andrographis paniculata (AP). By searching the core collection of Web of Science (WoS) SCI academic papers published from 2001 to 2020, and combining with bibliometrics descriptive and correlation indicators, the research situation of AP in the 20 years was clarified. The results are as follows. (1) In 2019-2020, the annual number of papers published on AP exceeded 100, most of which focused on the anti-cancer function of andrographolide. (2) Although India, China and Malaysia were the countries with the largest number of publications, China had the most recent coauthored relationships with the United States and Australia. Considering the number of papers published, H index and annual citations of papers, the United States achieved international influence equal to that of China with only 1/5 of the published papers of China. The research results of the United States were highly valued, and the quality of Chinese papers still needs to be improved. (3) The most frequently cited research institutions of AP were CSIR and the National University of Singapore. China Medical University in Taiwan, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Science were the major research institutions of AP in China. (4) The top 3 authors with the largest number of papers were all from China. (5) Wong W S F’s team of the National University of Singapore published an academic paper in 2009 with the highest impact factor (21.4) so far, illustrating the molecular mechanism of andrographolide in relieving asthma. With the disclosure of the function of ‘natural antibiotic’ andrographolide in inhibiting COVID-19 protein activity, international scholars have attached great importance to it, and the basic research on the pharmacological effect and high and stable yield of AP will be further deepened.