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    Response of Transplanting Date to Pepper’s Yield, Photosynthetic Characteristics and Meteorological Factors
    CHEN Fang, LIU Yupeng, ZENG Xiaoshan, YU Fei, HU Jiamin
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2024, 40 (10): 109-119.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2023-0066
    Abstract + (29)    HTML (3)    PDF (1354KB) (4)      

    The paper aims to explore the effects of different transplanting dates on pepper's yield, quality and photosynthetic characteristics in Guizhou. Seven transplanting dates were set with the main pepper cultivars ‘Layan No.1’, ‘Zunyi Chaotianjiao’ and ‘Xianjiao 269’ as test materials, the characteristics of the yield structure under different transplanting date were compared. And the relationship between meteorological factors including temperature and precipitation and the growing stage, photosynthetic characteristics, yield structure, quality were also analyzed. The results showed that the average temperature in the growth stage of pepper had the greatest influence on the yield, and the duration of each growth stage was related to meteorological factors. Earlier sowing could prolong the growth stage, increase the diurnal temperature range after pepper flowering stage, and speed up the net photosynthetic rate. The temperature and precipitation mainly affected the plant height, stem diameter, vitamin C, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and other indicators. With the delay of transplanting, the yield of pepper increased first and then decreased gradually, timely and early sowing is beneficial to the increase of pepper yield.

    Cotton Yield Forecast in Shandong Province Based on Meteorological Key Factors
    HOU Mengyuan
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2024, 40 (9): 37-41.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2023-0377
    Abstract + (36)    HTML (4)    PDF (1188KB) (19)      

    Cotton is an important cash crop in Shandong Province,and its growth and yield formation are closely related to meteorological conditions. It’s significant to carry out cotton yield prediction for economic security in Shandong Province. Based on the cotton yield data in Shandong Province from 1990 to 2020, the daily average temperature, precipitation and sunshine hours from 17 meteorological stations during the same period, the meteorological key factors affecting cotton yield were determined by means of factor puffing and correlation analysis, and a dynamic forecast model of cotton yield with every five days as the time step in Shandong Province was established. The province was divided into 4 regions, and the forecast model of cotton yield was tested during 1990-2016 and was applied during 2017-2020. The results showed that the average trend back-testing accuracy was 94.1% in the province, and ranged from 87.3%to 94.1% in different regions. The forecast accuracy of cotton yield during 2017-2020 was 95.1% in Shandong Province, and was 92.1%, 91.5%, 91.5%, and 90.9% in southern region, central region, northwestern region and eastern region of Shandong, respectively. The results of this study provided a theoretical basis for the quantitative, dynamic, and refined prediction of cotton yield in Shandong Province.

    Variation Characteristics and Correlation Analysis of Meteorological Elements During Maize Growth Period in Yangquan City
    MA Xiaoling, ZHOU Yanbo, YUAN Jie, ZHANG Jianjun, JIA Liting
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2024, 40 (7): 118-122.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2023-0281
    Abstract + (61)    HTML (3)    PDF (1221KB) (25)      

    In order to study the variation trend of meteorological factors in maize growth period and their influence on maize yield, the daily data of six meteorological factors and annual maize yield data in Yangquan City from April to September of 2002 to 2021 were analyzed using different methods such as M-K mutation test and Spearman correlation test. It was found that the average temperature, daily maximum and daily minimum temperature all showed an increasing trend during maize growth period, and the average temperature and daily minimum temperature increased significantly after 2018.The relative humidity and sunshine hours showed a downward trend, while the precipitation showed an upward trend, and the change trend was not significant. From 2002 to 2021, the actual yield of maize in Yangquan City showed a fluctuating upward trend, while the trend yield was rapid increased and then slow decreased, and the meteorological output showed a slow growth trend, but the difference between years was obvious. Average relative humidity and maximum temperature had the greatest influence on meteorological yield, reaching extremely significant correlation level, followed by precipitation and average temperature, showing significant correlation level, while minimum temperature and sunshine hours had no significant correlation with meteorological yield. The results can provide theoretical support for optimizing the structure of agricultural resources and promoting the sustainable development of regional agriculture.

    Characteristics of Soil Temperature Variation in Jiangxi Province and Its Relationship with Meteorological Elements
    CAI Zhe, DUAN Licheng, GUO Ruige, LIU Dongmei
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2024, 40 (4): 118-125.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-0718
    Abstract + (73)    HTML (0)    PDF (1326KB) (34)      

    Understanding the influencing factors, depth variation, seasonal variation and regional differences of soil temperature in Jiangxi Province can provide research basis for soil physical and chemical properties, soil biological distribution, growth and development. It provides scientific reference for agricultural planting and ecological construction. Based on the monthly average data of soil temperature, air temperature, precipitation, sunshine and relative humidity in each layer of ground meteorological data from 2005 to 2020, this study analyzed the seasonal variation of soil temperature in each layer of Jiangxi Province, the relationship between soil temperature and depth and its regional difference characteristics, and summarized the influence of various meteorological elements on soil temperature in each layer. The results showed that the seasonal variation of soil temperature in different layers in Jiangxi Province was very obvious. The hysteresis of soil temperature change became more obvious with the increase of soil depth. In spring and summer, the soil temperature decreased with the increase of soil depth, but the temperature variation decreased. Soil temperature increased with soil depth in autumn and winter, and the temperature changed greatly. The seasonal variation of soil temperature was different among different regions, and there was a quadratic linear relationship between soil temperature and depth. There were obvious differences in the correlation between soil temperature and meteorological elements in different regions. Single meteorological element had little influence on soil temperature and temperature, while the interaction of multiple meteorological elements had more obvious influence on soil temperature.

    Analysis of Agro-meteorological Factors Causing Apple Florescence Freezing in Zepu
    ABASI Kerimu, MENG Fanxue, KUDERETI Rehanguli, WANG Jun, LI Huimin
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2023, 39 (36): 97-101.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-1030
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    Low temperature and freeze injury is one of three major disasters that endanger the development of fruit trees in Xinjiang. The daily meteorological data during 1991 to 2022 from meteorological station of Zepu and investigation data about freezing injury of apple florescence in recently years were used to analyze the cause of freezing injury. The results showed that: from 1991 to 2022, the apple flower bud expansion period, flower bud opening period, the beginning of flowering were ahead of time by 2.0 to 5.1 d/10 a; apple florescence freezing damage was significant when the temperature dropped suddenly in flowering period, the lowest temperature reached -2.0℃, and the duration below 0℃ was 0.5 h; the dominant disaster-causing factors included the maximum diurnal range of temperature (no less than 22℃), the extreme minimum temperature (no more than -2℃), the spring cold weather, severe cooling, long duration, precipitation weather with dust weather (sandstorm, sand-blowing and floating dust) and severe wind. After freezing injury, the soluble solids content and other indicators of apple decreased to different extents. Freezing injury in apple flowering period affected the quality of apple. It will be of great scientific significance and application value to study on the freezing damage in flowering period of Fuji apple in Zepu apple producing area.

    Analysis of Persistent High Temperature and Drought in Summer of 2022 and Its Impacts on Crops in Guanzhong of Shaanxi Province
    QIAO Danyang, GAO Meng, LU Ye, WANG Jinting, WANG Jin, LIU Fan
    Journal of Agriculture    2023, 13 (12): 60-67.   DOI: 10.11923/j.issn.2095-4050.cjas2023-0020
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    Persistent high temperature and drought occurred in Guanzhong of Shaanxi Province in summer of 2022, causing serious impacts on the growth and development of crops such as maize, apple and kiwifruit. To study the mechanisms of the occurrence of heat and drought, observations from 46 automatic meteorological stations in Guanzhong area, and ERA-5 hourly and monthly mean reanalysis data were used to study the characteristics and causes of atmospheric circulation during the main high temperature periods. The results showed that (1) the main high temperature periods were mid-late June and early-mid August, with moderate to severe drought in most parts of Guanzhong. (2) Both high-temperature periods were characterised by strong sinking currents, but the causes were different. In June, strong sinking movements were maintained by anomalous pre-ridge negative vorticity advective, while in August, the superposition of the subtropical high and South Asian high caused the positive climate state anomalies and strong sinking movements over Shaanxi. (3) The strong northwesterly airflow in June and the abnormally westerly and strong subtropical high in August weakened the southerly airflow and blocked the source of water vapour, both showing positive anomalies of water vapour flux dispersion, which were not conducive to the occurrence of precipitation. (4) High temperatures and drought had an impact on the yield and quality of food and cash crops. It was recommended that effective measures should be taken before high temperatures to lower field temperatures, replenish plant water, enhance plant transpiration and reduce the degree of crop heat stress.

    Spatio-Temporal Characteristic of Microclimate in Kiwifruit Orchard at Different Growth Stages at the Northern Foothills of Qinling Mountains in Shaanxi Province
    ZHANG Weimin, WANG Jinghong, BAI Qinfeng
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2023, 39 (35): 118-124.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2023-0522
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    Based on the data of kiwifruit microclimate observed by Zhouzhi County Bairui Kiwifruit Research Institute at the northern foothills of Qinling Mountains in Shaanxi Province from May 2020 to December 2022, the microclimate characteristics of kiwifruit orchards in Zhouzhi at different growth stages were analyzed. The results showed that the diurnal variation of the total solar radiation and air temperature were all unimodal curves, with diurnal high and night low diurnal variation characteristics, and the total solar radiation peaked at 12:00-13:00 and the air temperature peaked at 15:00-16:00. The total radiation reached maximum at vigorous growth stage and second at initial growth stage. The daily maximum temperature at different canopy heights was the highest at the vigorous growth stage, followed by the initial period and the minimum in the dormant period. The diurnal temperature range at the initial growth stage was larger than that at vigorous growth stage and dormant stage. The temperature at each vertical height of canopy was the highest in July and the lowest in January. The daily variation of humidity showed an inverted“几”curve of high-low-high. Humidity was maximum at vigorous growth stage and the next at dormant stage. The humidity at each vertical height of canopy was the highest in October and the lowest in February. The temperature fluctuation of surface soil was bigger than that of deep soil, and the monthly change trend was consistent; the daily and monthly changes of soil moisture in each soil layer were small. The spatio-temporal characteristics of microclimate in kiwifruit orchard were studied in order to provide theoretical basis for studying the growth and decline law and quantitative relationship in the process of capacity and material exchange of kiwifruit orchard, thus improving the scientific management level of kiwifruit orchard.

    Temporal and Spatial Evolution Characteristics of Rain-waterlogging Events in Henan Province Based on the Analysis of Agricultural Flood Situation
    CHEN Jiadong, HUANG Jin, ZAHNG Jinchi
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2023, 39 (35): 125-133.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-0991
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    Henan Province is an important grain producing area in China, the analysis of the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of agricultural flood is of great significance to ensure regional food security. Based on the data of disaster-affected rate and disaster-suffered rate of agricultural flood, daily precipitation in the study area during 1978 to 2019, the possible relationships between the actual disaster situation and various types of rain-waterlogging indices were explored by using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). On this basis, the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of key disaster-causing factors and their responses to the large-scale ocean atmospheric circulation indices (LOACI) were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) the rain-waterlogging intensity reflected by inter-annual and inter-decadal fluctuations were accurately extracted from the annual disaster series by using EEMD; (2) the correlation analysis between rain-waterlogging intensity and various precipitation indices showed that maximum precipitation during consecutive 7 days in August had the most significant impact on disaster, and the next was the total number of rainfall days in September; (3) the spatial distribution of causing-disaster factors indicated that the risk in south and west of Henan were higher, and the rain-waterlogging intensity in summer presented a weakening tendency; (4) there was a significant correlation between the disaster-causing factors and the circulation indices such as Tropical South Atlantic SST with the lag-time of 6 to 9 months. The key causing-disaster factors of flood in Henan province were screened, and the circulation important signals for predicting disaster in advance were provided.

    Effects of Fertilizer Reduction Combined with Organic Fertilizer and Mixed Sowing Ratio on Forage Value of Avena sativa + Vicia sativa in Alpine Region
    RENZENG Wangdui
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2023, 39 (35): 81-86.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-1000
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    In this study, 6 mixed ratios and 4 kinds of fertilization models were designed, and the main objective was to solve the problems existing in the traditional oat planting mode in the alpine region. The fresh forage yield, hay forage yield, plant height, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude ash, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid washing fiber (ADF) of Avena sativa + Vicia sativa mixed grassland were determined, the grey correlation degree was used to evaluate the performance of mixed grassland. The results showed that the optimal ratio of Avena sativa + Vicia sativa was 6:4. Compared with oat monoculture, the crude protein and ether extract with the above ratio increased by 60 % and 36.4 % respectively, while the yield did not significantly decrease. When 50% fertilizer was subtituted by organic fertilizer, the yield of hay increased by 61.13%, and the crude protein increased by 23.9%. Bio-organic fertilizers could act as an alternative to chemical fertilizers. There was an interaction between fertilization and mixed sowing ratio. The comprehensive evaluation was the best under the conditions of 50% fertilizer reduction+50% organic fertilizer, mixed sowing ratio of Avena sativa and Vicia sativa at 6:4, which was suitable for planting and popularization in Xigaze region.

    Response of Plantago asiatica Phenology to Meteorological Conditions in West-central Tibet from 2002 to 2021
    TGEWANG, DU Jun, JIGME Namgyal, WANG Ting, TASHI Wanglha
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2023, 39 (34): 130-135.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-0930
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    The phenology changes of Plantago asiatica (PA) and their relationship with meteorological conditions were investigated in Shigatse, aiming to provide support for the study on the vegetation phenological changes in Tibet under the background of climate warming. Based on the data of PA’s phenology and monthly mean temperature, maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), relative humidity (RH), precipitation (Pr) and sunshine duration (S) in Shigatse of west-central Tibet from 2002 to 2021, the change of PA’s phenophase and its relationship with meteorological factors in Shigatse were studied by the methods of linear regression, Pearson correlation coefficient and partial least regression (PLS). The main results showed that: (1) the phenophases of PA had been significantly delayed in west-central Tibet from 2002 to 2021, with rates ranging from 8.96 to 38.63 days per decade, among which the changing rate of seed full maturity date was the most obvious with the highest value. In contrast, the length of growth season had prolonged slowly at a rate of 1.03 days per decade. (2) The significant delay in the phenology of PA in west-central Tibet could be mainly attributed to the decrease of Tmin in January, the reducing of S in March and RH in November, and the significant increase of Tmax in November. The response rates to temperature were 3.41 and 4.37 d/℃ in the first leaf expansion date and common leaf withering date of PA, respectively.

    Quality Dynamic Variation and Response to Meteorological Factors in the Development of Peach Fruits
    WANG Luyao, YAN Jintao, LIU Tao, LI Jingnan, CHEN Wei
    Journal of Agriculture    2023, 13 (11): 49-54.   DOI: 10.11923/j.issn.2095-4050.cjas2022-0165
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    In order to improve the quality of peach fruits and determine the best harvest time, ‘Jiubao’ was used as the material. The variations of single fruit weight, diameter, hardness, soluble solids content and titratable acid content were analyzed in this study. The models of fruit quality and main meteorological factors were established with the multiple regression method. The results showed that the growth and development dynamics of single fruit weight and diameter presented ‘slow-fast-slow’ stage characteristics, and conformed to the Logister curve. The single fruit weight maximum value appeared at 91 days after flowering, the vertical diameter growth maximum value appeared at 66 days after flowering, and the horizontal diameter growth maximum value appeared 5 days later. With the ripening of peach fruits, the fruit hardness gradually decreased, and the soluble solids content increased with a gradually accelerated rate. The titratable acid content fluctuated in a small range at first and then decreased rapidly. Combined with the regression analysis results, the fruit quality was mainly affected by ≥18℃ cumulative temperature, ≥24℃ cumulative temperature, daily average temperature and cumulative sunshine hours. Under the conditions of ≥18℃ cumulative temperature ≥1170.21℃, ≥24℃ cumulative temperature ≥769.23℃, daily average temperature ≥27.00℃, and cumulative sunshine hours ≥318.89 h, the fruit quality could reach the best maturity.

    Nanguo Pear in Anshan: The Influencing Factors of Flowering Period and the Forecast of Initial Flowering Period
    HAN Yanfeng, HE Jun, KANG Xiaoyu
    Journal of Agriculture    2023, 13 (11): 81-87.   DOI: 10.11923/j.issn.2095-4050.cjas2022-0169
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    Nanguo pear is a kind of Geographic Indications Product in Liaoning, and pear flower viewing is a tourism resource to be developed. Forecasting the flowering period is conducive to promoting the tourism industry. Based on the meteorological data of Anshan from 2000 to 2022 and the phenological data of the flowering period, we established a forecast model to screen related climate factors by using relevant analysis and stepwise regression methods. The results showed that the temperature in March was the main factor that affected the initial flowering period, followed by precipitation and light. Anshan Nanguo pear started to blossom in middle and late April. The flowering started in late April if the average temperature in the middle of March was less than 4.0℃, the average maximum temperature was less than 9.0℃, the average temperature from the middle of March to the first ten days of April was less than 6.0℃, and the average minimum temperature was less than 2.0℃. Without these conditions, the flowering started in the first ten days of April. The initial flowering period was advanced by 2-3 days when the temperature increased by 1℃. We selected six factors by stepwise regression, including the average temperature and the average maximum temperature in the middle of March, the average temperature, the average maximum temperature and the average minimum temperature from the middle of March to the first ten days of April, and the precipitation from the last ten days of March to the first ten days of April. The accuracy of the prediction model for the initial flowering period was 84.8%. It is feasible to predict the initial flowering period of Anshan Nanguo pear by using relevant indicators and stepwise regression model, and the method can be included in special meteorological forecast services.

    Analysis of Variation Characteristics of Ecological Net Primary Productivity and Climate Response in Hulun Buir Agricultural Reclamation Group
    QU Xuebin, JIANG Fengyou, GAO Shaoxin, XIN Xiaofei
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2023, 39 (32): 109-114.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-0903
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    To provide technical reference for the carbon source / sink analysis of farmland ecosystem, the ecological net primary productivity (Net ecosystem productivity, NEP) of Farm of Agricultural Reclamation Group in Hulun Buir was evaluated from 2001 to 2021. The NEP of various farms was studied based on remote sensing and meteorological data. The change trend and the response to climate of NEP were analyzed by using Sen trend line analysis method, Hurst index, coefficient of variation method and partial correlation analysis method. The results showed that the annual average NEP of Hulun Buir was 221.1 g C/(m·a), decreasing to the both sides of the Daxing'an Mountains. There was extremely significant increase of NEP during the study period. However, the results of Hurst index analysis showed that NEP changes of most farms of Hulun Buir Agricultural Reclamation Group were negatively associated with previous, namely decreasing trend in the future. The correlation between the NEP of Hulun Buir Agricultural Reclamation Group and precipitation was significant positive, but insignificant with temperature. It is suggested that Hulun Buir Agricultural Reclamation Group should strengthen the promotion of farming methods with high carbon fixation capacity to prevent the decline of carbon fixation capacity of farmland ecosystem, and strengthen the construction of agricultural irrigation and weather modification capacity to reduce the risk and impact of farmland drought disasters.

    Potential Distribution Prediction of Two Species of Dracocephalum L. Under Future Climate Change Based on MaxEnt Model
    SHI Ningrui, ZHU Zhu, WANG Yanli
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2023, 39 (32): 115-123.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-0874
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    In order to provide a theoretical basis for scientific protection and utilization of Dracocephalum L., the dominant environmental factors that limit the survivability of Dracocephalum L. were discussed and the potential distribution areas of them under different climatic environments were simulated. Based on the information of geographical distribution and environmental factors of Dracocephalum tanguticum and Dracocephalum heterophyllum which have highly medicinal value, the dominant environmental factors were analyzed by the MaxEnt model of these two species, and the suitable growth areas for them under current and future climate were predicted. The results showed that altitude was the key environmental factor affecting the distribution of the two species, with the contribution rates of 51.4% and 73.7%, respectively. The most suitable ranges for the distribution of the two species were 3028.63~4414.68 m and 2940.13~4703.83 m. The percentages of the suitable areas of the two species were 10.27% and 26.57% in China under current climate environment, and the medium-high suitable area were mainly distributed in Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan and other provinces. It was predicted that the distribution of the two species would migrate to the high-altitude areas in the future, and the highly suitable areas would still be mainly around the Himalayas, Qinghai Lake, and the mountainous zone of junction of Tibet, Qinghai, and Sichuan provinces. Therefore, the prediction of the effects of climate change on the distribution of the two species of Dracocephalum L. is helpful to provide reference for the division of plant reserve and the selection of artificial planting sites in the future, so as to protect plant germplasm resources and achieve the purpose of sustainable development.

    Impact of Climate on Agricultural Production in Tibet in 2022
    PUBU Duoji, SHI Jiqing, ZHANG Dongdong, ZHOU Kanshe
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2023, 39 (32): 124-131.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2023-0179
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    Through statistics and analysis of the trend and characteristics of climate change in Tibet, we analyze the average temperature, precipitation, sunshine, seasonal climate characteristics and their impact on agricultural production in Tibet in 2022. The study concludes that in 2022, the average temperature was high, precipitation was low, and sunshine hours were high. Through the analysis of meteorological conditions during the reproductive period of major crops, it is concluded that the transpiration of farmland soil is intensified, the moisture content decreases rapidly, and the seedling growth is weak in general, which affects the total grain output. In general, meteorological conditions have both advantages and disadvantages on agricultural production, and the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. In order to safeguard the quality of agricultural meteorological services, ensure food security, and grasp the meteorological guarantee services for the future grain return to the warehouse, the meteorological service recommendations for agricultural production are put forward to provide a scientific basis for agricultural production and disaster prevention and mitigation in Tibet.

    Analysis of Phenological Period and Meteorological Conditions of Pistachio vera. L in Shufu County of Xinjiang
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2023, 39 (32): 132-137.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-0904
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    Using the meteorological observation data from 1987 to 2022 of Kashi National Reference Climate Station and the growth data of Pistacia vera phenology and temperature in the same period in Shufu County, the suitable planting area of Pistacia vera in Shufu County was analyzed by using the correlation and regression analysis. And through analyzing the spatio-temporal distribution of frost in spring, frost damage in winter, high temperature stress in summer during the Pistacia vera growing time, the meteorological disasters that affecting Pistacia vera growth were determined. The results showed that the growth period of Pistacia vera from bud germination to dormancy was about 270 d in Shufu County, the average temperature increase from late February to mid-April was 0.8-1.2℃/10 a, and the bud swelling, bud opening, leaf spreading and flowering stage advanced 4.5, 5.9 and 4.6 d/10 a, respectively, indicating that the climatic warming advanced the spring phenology of Pistacia vera in Shufu County. We should pay attention to the diseases caused by overwinter, high temperature and humidity.

    Influence of Climate Change on the Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Effective Accumulated Temperature in Shanxi Province
    HOU Qi, LI Shuai, ZHAO Yujie, CUI Guangshu
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2023, 39 (32): 138-144.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-0852
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    To understand the impact of climate change on crop planting in Shanxi Province, based on the temperature grid data from 1961 to 2016, this paper used Mann-Kendall trend/mutation test, coefficient of variation and multiple regression interpolation method to analyze the effective accumulated temperature ≥5℃ and ≥10℃ in Shanxi Province. The results showed that: (1) the effective accumulated temperature of both ≥5℃ and ≥10℃ showed obvious increasing trends in time distribution, and the effective accumulated temperature increased rapidly in northern Shanxi Province and the valleys and basins with low terrain, and the spatial distribution was zonal from northeast to southwest. (2) The effective accumulated temperature of ≥5℃ and ≥10℃ showed decreasing trends from south to north in spatial distribution, and its spatial distribution was greatly affected by altitude. The effective accumulated temperature of ≥5℃ had a larger distribution area in the accumulated temperature range suitable for crop growth, and was more suitable for cold-loving crop cultivation in most areas. (3) The effective accumulated temperature was abruptly changed in 1997, after the change, the northern boundary of accumulated temperature moved to high latitude and high altitude areas. (4) The effective accumulated temperature initial date was mostly advanced, and the end date tended to be delayed. The duration of effective accumulated temperature was extended, and this trend was more obvious in the south of Shanxi Province, valleys and basins. The coefficient of variation of the effective accumulated temperature start date increased from northeast to southwest, and the rate of variation of the initial date of Fenhe Valley was large; the coefficient of variation of the end date was smaller and the distribution was more stable.

    Refined Agro-climatic Zoning of Main Food Crops: Taking Zhongjiang County of Sichuan Province as an Example
    LIU Yangyang, WANG Mingtian
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2023, 39 (31): 129-138.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-0869
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    In order to optimize the distribution of grain production industry and ensure food security, the refined agro-climatic zoning of wheat and corn planting in Zhongjiang was carried out based on GIS. This paper used the daily meteorological data of Zhongjiang Meteorological Monitoring Station from 2007 to 2016, and the meteorological data of the sunshine duration, temperature and precipitation of the 30 automatic stations in and around the Zhongjiang from 2011 to 2015, 2007-2016 wheat and corn sown area, total yield and unit yield, as well as 1:250000 geographic information data and digital maps to compare the difference between the high yield years and poor yield years through analyzing the direct relationship between the meteorological yield of wheat and corn and the meteorological conditions in each growth period in Zhongjiang and its surrounding areas. Three key growth periods and six key climate factors of corn and wheat were selected as the regionalization indicators for the zoning of main grain crops in Zhongjiang County. The results show that Gudian, Shiquan, Jifeng, Fuxing, Nanhua, Dongbei, some parts of Yongxing Town and Shisun Township in the south, and the southernmost Yuanxing and Yongfeng Township are basically suitable because of their high terrain and poor water supply, while the rest are more suitable. We can make use of the advantages of climate resources and soil resources in these suitable areas to actively develop the cultivation of food crops to ensure food security.

    Variation of Negative Oxygen Ion and its Relationship with Main Meteorological Factors in Qianshan National Forest Park
    GONG Miao, WANG Xiaorong, LIU Qingping, HE Yong, XIA Shaodan, HU Xingyi
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2023, 39 (30): 101-107.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-0911
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    Air negative oxygen ion has the effect of improving human immunity and regulating function balance and is known as “air vitamin”. However, due to the difference of regional ecological environment conditions, it is uncertain to explain the change of air negative oxygen ion reasonably. Thus, it is of great significance to study the characteristics of air negative oxygen ion concentration and its influencing factors in a specific area for further revealing the change mechanism of air negative oxygen ion and carrying out regional air quality assessment. In this study took air negative oxygen ions in Qianshan National Forest Park of Mufu Mountain area of Hubei Province as the research object, and used the long-term dynamic monitoring data to analyze the characteristics of diurnal, monthly and seasonal variations of the concentration of negative oxygen ions in the air and the assessment of the concentration level. The relationship between negative oxygen ion and air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, PM2.5 and other environmental factors was studied as well, so as to provide scientific basis for environmental quality assessment and ecological service function assessment in this region. The results showed that the distribution of negative oxygen ion concentration showed obvious seasonal variation, with the highest concentration in summer and the lowest concentration in winter, and the overall pattern was summer > autumn > spring > winter. The maximum monthly mean was in August and the minimum monthly mean was in January. The concentration of negative oxygen ions was positively correlated with air temperature, negatively correlated with relative humidity and PM2.5, and had no obvious correlation with wind speed. The mean concentration of negative oxygen ions in Qianshan National Forest Park was 2191/cm3, which had excellent air negative oxygen ion ecological health resources.

    Effects of Meteorological Factors at Different Transplanting Dates on the Agronomic Characters of Flue-cured Tobacco Variety ‘HN2146’ in Xiangxi Mountainous Area
    ZHANG Mingfa, ZHANG Sheng, YUAN Xiaokang, CHAO Jin, TIAN Maocheng, TIAN Yongmei, MA Lin, QIN Lang, LU Kuidong, PENG Yu, KONG Fanyu, TIAN Feng
    Journal of Agriculture    2023, 13 (10): 70-76.   DOI: 10.11923/j.issn.2095-4050.cjas2022-0139
    Abstract + (81)    HTML (1)    PDF (1296KB) (45)      

    To clarify main meteorological factors which affect the growth and development process of flue-cured tobacco in mountainous area, and to properly arrange field transplanting date, the field experiments of main tobacco variety ‘HN2146’ with different transplanting dates were carried out for three consecutive years, to analyze the changes of growth period, and define the relationship between sunlight, precipitation and temperature and the growth of flue-cured tobacco. The results showed that the plant height and stem girth were moderately correlated with the transplanting date of flue-cured tobacco, while the middle leaf length and middle leaf area were strongly correlated with the transplanting date. At the same time, the plant height, stem girth and leaf area of flue-cured tobacco transplanted at T1 (April 12, April 19 and April 26) were the largest, which increased by 6.14%±2.98%, 5.35%±1.69% and 19.38%±5.83%, respectively, compared with the average values of the other four transplanting dates. Simple correlation analysis showed that the effective accumulated temperature≥12℃, precipitation and sunshine duration were significantly positively correlated in pairs, and significantly positively correlated with most agronomic characters. The results of canonical correlation analysis showed that there was a very significant canonical correlation between agronomic characters and meteorological factors. Different transplanting dates of flue-cured tobacco mainly affected precipitation, effective accumulated temperature≥12℃, leaf number and middle leaf length. The results of principal component analysis showed that the first principal component indicated that adjusting different transplanting dates could improve the meteorological factors and agronomic characters of flue-cured tobacco at different transplanting dates, and the effects had similar characteristics. The second principal component indicated that the main differences in influencing meteorological factors and agronomic characters were the changes of upper leaf area, upper leaf length, middle leaf area, stem girth, plant height and effective accumulated temperature≥12℃. Therefore, from the perspective of agronomic characters, April 12, April 19 and April 26 are the best transplanting dates for flue-cured tobacco variety ‘HN2146’ in low, middle and high altitude areas in Xiangxi.