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    Apricot Initial Flowering Period and Meteorological Factors of Kashi, Xinjiang: Correlation and Predication
    Kerimu Abasi, Nu`erpatiman Maimaitireyimu, Meng Fanxue, Patiman Abuduaini, Zhang Qin
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2021, 37 (1): 121-131.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb20200200099
    Abstract + (19064)    HTML (4712)    PDF (1314KB) (25377)      

    Based on the observation of the apricot tree phenology and the daily average temperature, minimum temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours of the corresponding period in Kashi City, and Yecheng, Shache, Bachu and Maigaiti County of Kashi Prefecture of Xinjiang, the relationship between the beginning of apricot flowering and meteorological factors was analyzed using correlation analysis and regression analysis. The results show that among the various meteorological factors, the lowest temperature has the greatest impact on flowering, followed by the average temperature and sunlight, and the precipitation and other meteorological factors have less influence. The temperature in the study area is positively correlated to the flowering period of the apricot tree. From 1984 to 2019, the minimum temperature and average temperature increase in Kashi from late February to late March was 0.2-1.7℃/10 years. The apricot flower bud expansion period, flower bud opening period, the beginning of flowering was ahead of time by 5.3 to 8.7, 3.1 to 5.6, and 2.2 to 3.6 d/10 a, respectively. In apricot flowering period forecasting service, the daily average temperature of north, south and east of Kashi passed through ≥0℃ from day 1 to 34, day 39 to 41, day 37 to 39, or the accumulated temperature passed ≥0℃ before flowering reaching 250, 270-280, and 250-270℃, respectively, or the sliding average temperature of 5 days before the beginning of flowering passed≥12℃ could be used as the basis for predicting the beginning of apricot tree flowering.

    Variation Characteristics and Impact of Climate Factors During Winter Wheat Growth in Kashgar, Xinjiang
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2016, 32 (27): 34-41.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb16010061
    Abstract + (18227)       PDF (1022KB) (24171)      
    The study aims to provide references for crop production in winter wheat area of Kashgar. The data of temperature, precipitation, sunshine duration from 1981 to 2014 during the growth period of winter wheat in Kashgar was used to study the variation characteristics of climate factors and their effects on winter wheat growth and development by the climate statistical method. The results indicated that the annual average temperature change during winter wheat growth in Kashgar showed an increasing trend. The precipitation showed a decreasing trend in the first two months after winter (March and April), and an obviously increasing trend in the rest time. Meanwhile, the effective accumulative temperature and the sunshine duration showed an increasing trend. Each development stage of winter wheat was ahead of schedule in different degrees during recent 34 years, especially the early stage and the jointing stage, but the overwintering stage showed a trend of delay. The temperature, effective accumulative temperature and the sunshine duration were negatively correlated with each development stage of the winter wheat. In short, the main reason for the advance of winter wheat growth period was the increase of temperature, effective accumulative temperature and sunshine duration. The impact of climate warming on winter wheat growth was significant in Kashgar.
    Jujube in Kashgar: Planting Meteorological Condition Analysis and Climate Quality Certification
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2018, 34 (31): 119-124.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb17070145
    Abstract + (17354)            
    Based on sunshine duration, relative humidity, wind speed data from the national reference stations of Kashgar and the air temperature, precipitation from automatic meteorological station in Baishikeremu, we analyzed the effects of meteorological conditions and meteorological factors in Kashgar in 2015 on jujube planting and discussed the corresponding measures, studied the climatic suitability zoning indices and climatic conditions for jujube planting in Kashgar, in order to evaluate the climatic quality levels of jujube, determine the main climatic factors affecting jujube quality, and provide a basis for jujube planting techniques and production management. The results showed that: among the meteorological factors in Kashgar in 2015, sunshine was the most conducive to the growth and development of jujube and fruit coloring; there were influences of high temperature and precipitation on the growth and development period of jujube in 2015, and corresponding agricultural measures should be adopted to ensure jujube quality and yield. According to the grade of climatic suitability zoning index of jujube, the climatic conditions of jujube growth of the year and the production management of jujube enterprises, the climate quality grade of jujube in the certified region is excellent.
    Impacts of Climate Change on the Agricultural Planting Structure of Main Crops in Hunan
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2010, 26 (24): 276-286.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.2010-1506
    Abstract + (5301)       PDF (11595038KB) (5255)      

    Based on daily meteorological records of mean, minimum and maximum air temperatures, sunshine hours as well as precipitation from more than 97stations from 1961 to 2008 across Hunan province, we employ the best small grid interpolating methods to develop the high-resolution grid series data with the grid distance of 500 m. Based on the main crops growth conditions and regionalization research results of double cropping rice, rape, cotton, satsuma mandarin, sweet orange, pummelo, camellia oleifera, tobacco, we establish the corresponding indexes of climatic regionalization for main crops suitability. Combined with the geographic information data and based on GIS, we carry out the work of dynamic climatic regionalization for main crops planting suitability. The results show that the climate change has some influences on the planting structure of main crops in Hunan province. The major impact on double cropping rice is the change of ripe cycle, onrape and camellia oleifera as well asorange is the increased area of optimum suitable planting, on cotton and tobacco is the decreased area of optimum suitable planting. According to the impacts of climate change on planting structure and the results of agricultural climatic regionalization, we propose as follows: make full use of climate resources of lakeshore plain and valley plain as well as basin to raise multiple crop index, and to increase the yield per unit area; make full use of mountain climate resources to make the camellia oleifera industry bigger and stronger; make full use of regional climate resources to create the orange brand; make full use of microclimatic resource to develop the special tobacco planting in western and southern Hunan province

    Analysis of Agro-meteorological Factors Causing Apple Florescence Freezing in Zepu
    ABASI Kerimu, MENG Fanxue, KUDERETI Rehanguli, WANG Jun, LI Huimin
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2023, 39 (36): 97-101.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2022-1030
    Abstract + (4845)    HTML (2300)    PDF (1210KB) (13789)      

    Low temperature and freeze injury is one of three major disasters that endanger the development of fruit trees in Xinjiang. The daily meteorological data during 1991 to 2022 from meteorological station of Zepu and investigation data about freezing injury of apple florescence in recently years were used to analyze the cause of freezing injury. The results showed that: from 1991 to 2022, the apple flower bud expansion period, flower bud opening period, the beginning of flowering were ahead of time by 2.0 to 5.1 d/10 a; apple florescence freezing damage was significant when the temperature dropped suddenly in flowering period, the lowest temperature reached -2.0℃, and the duration below 0℃ was 0.5 h; the dominant disaster-causing factors included the maximum diurnal range of temperature (no less than 22℃), the extreme minimum temperature (no more than -2℃), the spring cold weather, severe cooling, long duration, precipitation weather with dust weather (sandstorm, sand-blowing and floating dust) and severe wind. After freezing injury, the soluble solids content and other indicators of apple decreased to different extents. Freezing injury in apple flowering period affected the quality of apple. It will be of great scientific significance and application value to study on the freezing damage in flowering period of Fuji apple in Zepu apple producing area.

    Olive in Wudu Mountain: Growth Meteorological Condition and Suitable Climate Division
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2016, 32 (31): 161-166.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb16020080
    Abstract + (4803)       PDF (859KB) (10275)      
    The paper aims to illustrate the key growth stages of olive and the relationship between botanical characteristics and meteorological variables. In Wudu mountain, the botanical characteristics of olive and the meteorological observation data from 2012 to 2015 were collected. Based on the leading indicator of average temperature in January and several other factors such as annual average temperature, annual average relative humidity, and annual sunshine hours, an olive suitable climate division index system was built for Wudu mountain. The fine climate division map for olive cultivation suitability was made by applying GIS technology. The results indicated that: the most suitable olive planting areas were located in the valley plains, basins, and shallow mountainous areas below the elevation of 1300 m in the southern Wudu and Bailong river basin; suitable olive planting areas were located in the valley plains, basins, and shallow mountainous areas in the elevation of 1400- 1500 m; the other areas were unsuitable for olive growing which were mainly in the northwest Wudu and other places above the elevation of 1500 m. The results can guide scientific planning and rational arrangement for Wudu mountain and make the best of climate resources to develop olive industry, and also provide a scientific basis for prevention and mitigation of meteorological disasters.
    Approach and practice of Climate-smart agriculture
    Journal of Agriculture    2015, 5 (9): 117-124.   DOI: 10.11923/j.issn.2095-4050.cjas15010030
    Abstract + (2495)       PDF (1373KB) (1249)      
    [Objective] “Climate-smart agriculture”(CSA) is agriculture that sustainably increases productivity, resilience (adaptation), reduces greenhouse gases (mitigation), and enhances achievement of national food security and adaptability of climate change.[Method]The review introduced the background, definition and approach of CSA, and presented the practice pattern and successful cases in the world. [Result] CSA is a kind of new agricultural development option. For this, necessary transformation should be made in current agricultural system through integrated soil, water, genetic resources and food value chain management. [Conclusion]China needs to promote the development of CSA on the basis of global experiences and its national conditions.
    Characteristics of Rainfall and Evaporation of Different Region in Recent 30 Years in Hainan Province
    Zhang Liming, Wei Zhiyuan, Qi Zhiping
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2006, 22 (4): 403-403.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.0604403
    Abstract + (2297)       PDF (276891KB) (795)      
    The characteristics of rainfall and evaporation in different regions in recent 30 years in Hainan Province were researched in this paper according to the weather data in 1974 to 2004 by offered the weather bureau of Hainan Provence and the data of rainfall and evaporation in the weather bureau of Hainan Province which belonged to one chapter of the publication of annals of Hainan Province by published 2005.The results indicated that the rain mostly occurred in the month of 8 to10 and the evaporation mostly occurred in the month of 5 to 7, the evaporation is obviously more than the rainfall in spring and winter and the rainfall is obviously more than the evaporation in summer and autumn except the south and the west which the evaporation is more than the rainfall in most regions of Hainan Province. The results indicated that the average rainfall of one year is more than the average evaporation of one year in east and center and the average evaporation of one year is more than the average rainfall of one year in south, north and west region of Hainan Province.
    The establishment of the simulated system of drought for soybean in laboratory
    Yang Jianping,Chen Xuezhen,Wang Wenping,Li Yang
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2003, 19 (3): 65-65.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.030365
    Abstract + (2195)       PDF (232964KB) (865)      
    Taking the three species of soybean widely planted in Beijing as the material, we compared the activity of NR, CAT and POD in the plant of the soybean at the osmotic stress of the five different concentration of PEG6000, analysed the content of the chlorophyll and free proline. The results indicated that all of the indexes had shown a significant difference under the treatment of the 5% of PEG6000 by the distinct analysis. The most appropriated concentration of PEG6000 in the simulation of aridity treatment in the laboratory was 15%.
    Climate Characteristics and Change Trend of Xiongan New Area
    Liao Yaoming, Huang Dapeng
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2020, 36 (23): 99-105.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb20191201009
    Abstract + (2052)    HTML (15)    PDF (1565KB) (731)      

    To provide better climate services for the planning and construction of Xiongan New Area, this paper systematically analyzed the basic climate characteristics and change trend of the Area based on daily meteorological observation data of three national meteorological stations from their establishment to 2018. Spatial distribution characteristics of precipitation and temperature in recent 10 years and the next 10 years in Xiongan were analyzed and predicted by using the refined land surface assimilation data and climate change scenario data. The results showed that the average annual precipitation in Xiongan was 480.8 mm and the precipitation mainly occurred from June to September. During 1961-2018, the average annual precipitation in Xiongan showed a generally decreasing trend, with a significantly decreasing trend in summer and an obviously increasing trend in autumn. In the next 10 years, the precipitation in most areas of Xiongan will increase. The annual average temperature, maximum temperature and minimum temperature in Xiongan was 12.6, 18.7 and 7.3℃ respectively. In the year averaged from 1981 to 2010, the highest monthly temperature appeared in July and the lowest appeared in January. From 1961 to 2018, the average temperature, the average maximum temperature and the average minimum temperature in Xiongan all showed an upward trend, with obvious warming in spring and winter, followed by summer, while the trend in autumn was not obvious. In the next 10 years, the temperature in Xiongan will rise significantly. The annual average sunshine hours in Xiongan were 2335.2 hours. During the year, there were relatively more sunshine hours in spring and summer, and relatively less sunshine hours in autumn and winter. From 1968 to 2018, the annual sunshine hours in Xiongan showed a decreasing trend, with the fastest decreasing rate in autumn and the slowest in spring. The annual average wind speed in Xiongan was 1.7 m/s. During the year, the average wind speed in April was the largest, and the average wind speed in January, August and December was the smallest. From 1961 to 2018, the average wind speed in Xiongan was generally decreasing, with the largest decreasing rate in winter and the smallest in summer.

    Study on Meteorological Degree Forecast Model of the Main Pests and Diseases of Winter Wheat in Shanxi
    Wang Zhiwei1, Zhang Dongxia2, Ma Yali1, Ban Shenglin1
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2010, 26 (11): 267-271.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.2009-2751
    Abstract + (2050)       PDF (480874KB) (865)      

    Meteorological conditions were the main influence factors of pests and diseases of winter wheat, and were closely related to the developmental stages of crops. Especially in the special year, if the influence factors selected by model had more obvious changes than normal years, the differences between the forecast results and the actual results was big, so the forecast model had some limitations. In order to enhance the practicality of forecasting mathematical statistics, historical data for many years should be used and predict methods should be used as many as possible in practice to access to higher forecast accuracy rate. In this paper, the meteorological conditions forecast index of the main pests and diseases of winter wheat (powdery mildew, stripe rust, wheat spider) were analyzed, the meteorological degree forecast model of the main pests and diseases of winter wheat was set up. Through the back testing with the historical data, the rate of backtracking and fitting for the forecast model was above 90%. In a word, the model set up by this method was applied to do the meteorological forecast of the main pests and diseases(stripe rust, powdery mildew, wheat spider) of winter wheat in general years in Shanxi. Key words: Shanxi province; winter wheat; insect pests and diseases; meteorological conditions; forecast model

    Meteorological Factors on Freezing Injury of Amygdalus communis During Overwintering in Yingjisha of Xinjiang
    Kerimu ABASI, Nuerpatiman MAIMAITIREYIM, MENG Fanxue, CHEN Gang, Patiman ABUDUAINI
    Journal of Agriculture    2022, 12 (2): 31-35.   DOI: 10.11923/j.issn.2095-4050.cjas20191100279
    Abstract + (2026)    HTML (731)    PDF (1186KB) (10058)      

    By using the basic meteorological data of 2001 to 2019 from Yingjisha national meteorological observing station and the phenological observation data and freezing injury data, the freezing rate of flower bud and yield of Amygdalus communis were analyzed. Combined with mathematical statistics, the meteorological factors causing frozen flower bud during overwintering period of Amygdalus communis in Yingjisha were studied. The results showed that the lowest air temperature in winter and its lasting days, the lowest land surface temperature and frozen earth depth caused the freezing of Amygdalus communis buds, but there was no obvious impact of the maximum snow depth of winter and its lasting days and winter precipitation. When the lowest temperature was -23℃ to -18℃, its lasting days and the lowest land surface temperature were the main factors causing frozen flower buds.

    Effect of Drought on Rice Quality
    Wang Pingrong, Deng Xiaojian, Gao Xiaoling, Chen Jing, Wan Jia, Jiang Hua, Xu Zhengjun
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2004, 20 (6): 282-282.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.0406282
    Abstract + (1970)       PDF (1123416KB) (646)      
    Using 9 hybrid combinations and 4 restorer lines, the effect of continuous drought on rice quality, was analyzed during flowering, filling and seed-setting stages. The results showed that the drought reduced milling quality of rice, especially, most significantly decreased the head rice rate. The drought treatment also increased chalky grain rate and chalkiness significantly, but the effect on grain shape was not very significant. These results indicated that the drought reduced grain appearance quality. In our experiments, because the drought raised gelatinization temperature, harden gel consistency and decrease amylose content of rice, cooking and eating quality of rice should be influenced. So, It was proposed that production of good quality rice should firstly select good quality variety, meanwhile, should choose production base with both of suitable temperature and sunlight condition and good irrigation condition. In the cultivation of quality rice, field water should be managed properly during filling and seed-setting stages, in which special attention should be paid to keep field suitable water (soil moisture) in the later stage.
    Effects of Drought Stress on the Physical index and Dry leaf yield of Stevia rebaudina Bertoni
    Journal of Agriculture    2011, 1 (9): 1-6.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.2095-4050.2011-xb0545
    Abstract + (1951)       PDF (1090KB) (1685)      

    The effects of drought stress on the physical index and the dry leaf yield in the different Stevia rebaudina Bertoni germplasms of IS-1, QF-1, Qingtianza4, JD-1 and AL-4 was studied with the pot method in greenhouse. The results indicated that the content of soluble protein, the relative electric conductivity, the content of malondiadehyde (MDA), the activities of peroxidase(POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the dry leaf yield of the stevia germplasms were different and showed different degree changes with the continuing of drought-stress time. The content of soluble protein of the stevia germplasm showed decreasing trend, but that in IS-1 rose in the T3 (without irrigation for 15 days). The relative electric conductivity showed stable and significant increase. The MAD content in the IS-1 and in the AL-4 decreased firstly and then increased, but that in the QF-1, Qingtianza4 and JD-1 increased continually. The dry leaf yield of this stevia germplasm showed decrease in different degree. The different change degree of the diverse stevia dermplasm in the same treatment indicated that drought resistance of the stevia germplasm is different:the drought resistance of the IS-1 is the strongest,the drought resistance of the QF-1 is the weakest,the order of the drought resistance in other stevia germplasm are AL-4>Qingtianza4>JD-1.

    Analysis of Features of Agroclimatic Changes in Songnen Plain in the Past 40 Years
    Wang Zongming, Song Kaishan, Zhang Bai, Liu Dianwei
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2006, 22 (12): 241-241.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.0612241
    Abstract + (1938)            
    Based on monthly climatic data from 1961 to 2000, the changing characteristics and trend of agroclimatic elements in Songnen Plain were studied. Results showed that, under the circumstances of global warming, during the past 40 years, the average annual temperature increased obviously and the warming speed was above 0.4℃/10a. After 1980, the warming trend was more obvious. The average air temperature in every season and in cropping season increased significantly. The average temperature in winter increased with the biggest ratio. The annual and winterly average maximum temperature increased with obvious trend. The annual, seasonal, and cropping average minimum temperature added significantly. Among which, the increasing ratio of average minimum temperature in winter and in spring were larger. For annual rainfall and the rainfall in 4 seasons, there was no obvious trend to increase or to decrease. However, during the period 1961-1980, rainfall in cropping season decreased significantly. The study results could be of interest for crop planning and cropping structure adjustment in Songnen Plain.
    GIS Application to the Analysis of Freezing Damage of Longan in Fujian
    Wang Jiayi, Chen Hui, Li Wen, Cai Wenhua, Li Lichun
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2008, 24 (7): 500-503.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.20085978
    Abstract + (1936)       PDF (514573KB) (781)      
    A study about scientific planting of Longan in Fujian was conducted in order to reduce its freezing damage. First, indexes about the freezing grade of Longan were identified according to the relationships among Longan growth, damage degree, annual minimum temperature, and the aspect and slope of planting region. Using the geographical information data of 68 meteorological stations, spatial distribution model of freezing damage indexes of Longan was established, and the 50m×50m resolution spatial distributions were simulated by GIS. Therefore, distribution rules of Longan in Fujian were analyzed by using GIS spatial analysis.
    Climate Change and Its Impacts in Northeast China
    Ju Hui, Xiong Wei, Xu Yinlong, Lin Erda
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2007, 23 (4): 345-345.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.0704345
    Abstract + (1922)       PDF (145088KB) (561)      
    【OBJECTIVE】The temperature increased and precipitation decrease much during last century in Northeast China, in order explore benefit and avoid negative impacts from climate change, the review was undertaken. 【METHOD】 Many literatures in recent years were used in the analysis, concluded the observed impacts and future predicted impacts by climate change. 【RESULTS】 The results indicate that with temperature increasing, current frost disaster decrease and growth period have been lengthened that will give more suitable growth period for crops. On the other hand, climate change drive some wetland degradation and disappeared, some frost soil have been melting or lose. Future climate change will alter agriculture planting system and decrease some crop production. Forest structure and tree variety will change and marginal place of grazing agriculture will expose to dangerous of desertification. 【CONCLUSION】 Northeast China has to recognize climate change objectively, and take adaptive options for regional sustainable development.
    Study on the Characteristics and Identification Methods of Shock Wave Lightning Harm
    Journal of Agriculture    2015, 5 (3): 102-106.   DOI: 10.11923/j.issn.2095-4050.2014-xb0534
    Abstract + (1922)       PDF (1369KB) (1188)      
    Combined with the characteristics of lightning shock wave, the shock wave damage identification method of lightning investigation of metal components of civil engineering, such as location, expounds the metal component damage, shock and the impact of external force, the lightning and the discharge channel, harm of lightning current, lightning current impulse wave, objects damaged lightning shock wave (overpressure), seven cases of damaged body resistance to shock pressure. The results showed that: when the survey results accord with the following conditions, may determine the lightning accidents caused by lightning shock hazard, this identification method is the shock wave analysis method. (1) Stroke time and metal components of lightning damage. (2) The impaired time in metal component, the flash of lightning damage to objects located near. (3) The lightning discharge produced higher flow channel heat and the heat is generated shock wave is strong. (4) In the metal component is damaged, the direction of non explosive damage, and no metallic body external impact. (5) the damaged metal body is smaller than the lightning surge capacity of resisting impact air pressure.
    The Simulation of Yield Variability of Winter Wheat and its Corresponding Adaptation Options under Climate Change
    Xiong Wei, Xu Yinlong, Lin Erda
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2005, 21 (5): 380-380.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.0505380
    Abstract + (1887)            
    The changed climate resource due to the climate change will impact the agricultural production in China in future. Based on the emission scenarios of greenhouse gases – A2 and B2, and by using RCM (Regional Climate Model) – PRECIS and CERES-Wheat model, the paper simulated the impacts of climate change on the winter wheat yield variability at North China, and simulated the performance of two adaptation options under climate change scenarios. The results shows: maximum yield, average yield as well as the yield variability will increase under both A2 and B2 climate change scenarios at all periods. Advancing the sowing date and changing to the middle-term cultivars can decrease the yield variability, stabilized the yield.
    Sunshine Duration in China: Variation Characteristics and Its Influence
    Xiao Fengjin, Zhang Xuguang, Liao Yaoming, Liu Qiufeng
    Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin    2020, 36 (20): 92-100.   DOI: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb19030090
    Abstract + (1871)    HTML (49)    PDF (2035KB) (266)      

    The paper aims to study the spatio-temporal variation characteristics of sunshine duration in China under the background of climate change. Based on the observation data from 2089 national meteorological stations during 1961-2017, we analyzed the spatio-temporal variation characteristics of sunshine duration in different regions of China and the influencing factors by using the methods of the linear trend, partial correlation, and Mann-Kendall mutation. The results showed that the spatial distribution of sunshine duration was high in northern China and low in southern China, and had a significantly decreasing trend with a rate of -45.8 h/10 a. The sunshine duration had a mutation in 1989 in southwestern China, in 1983 in northwestern China, and in 1985 in northeastern China, and no mutation occurred in other regions. Summer had the highest sunshine duration, followed by spring, autumn and winter; and the decline rate was also the highest in summer, followed by autumn, winter and spring. Sunshine duration had a highly negative correlation with total cloud amount, visibility, haze, precipitation, while had a positive correlation with wind speed, and no significant correlation with fog.