To explore the regulatory effects of planting parameters on photosynthetic characteristic, soybean yield, and quality of soybean, this experiment took ‘Baodou 10’ as tested material, and set up 3 factors and 3 levels of row-ledge, plant density, and fertilizing amount with the orthogonal design to study the effects of plant parameters on photosynthetic characteristic, soybean yield and yield components, and seed quality. The result showed that average SPAD, Pn, WUE, IWUE, and CE from the growth stage increased with increase of row-ledge and fertilizer, and level 3 had more advantages than others. Seeds per plant and yield increased with the increase of row-ledge and fertilizing amount, and average seeds per plant of level 3 in tested seasons were 110.77 seeds and 100 seeds, which had a significant difference from level 1. The average yield of level 3 in tested seasons was 2874.3 kg/hm2 and 2984.25 kg/hm2. As plant density increased, average SPAD, Pn, WUE, IWUE, and CE in the growth stage decreased, and level 1 had more advantages than others. Seeds per plant and yield decreased when plant density increased, and the average seeds per plant and yield of level 1 in tested seasons were 99.17 seeds and 2874.75 kg/hm2, which had a significant difference from that of level 3. 100-seed weight, crude protein content, crude fat content, and hydrophilic protein content were not significantly affected by different treatments. Yield, yield components, and photosynthetic capacity in soybean were affected by row ledge, plant density, and fertilizing amount. Under the mechanization production background of soybean, wide row-ledge (60 cm), narrow planting distance (18.75×104 plants/hm2), and high seed fertilizer (300 kg/hm2) can effectively use light, temperature, and water resources in the west of Guanzhong areas and improve soybean yield.